MATLAB绘图

 

第5章  MATLAB绘图

5.1  二维数据曲线图

5.2  其他二维图形

5.3  隐函数绘图

5.4  三维图形

5.5  图形修饰处理

5.6 图像处理与动画制作

5.1  二维数据曲线图

5.1.1  绘制单根二维曲线

plot函数的基本调用格式为:

plot(x,y)

其中x和y为长度相同的向量,分别用于存储x坐标和y坐标数据。

例5-1  在0≤x≤2p区间内,绘制曲线

                    y=2e-0.5xcos(4πx)

程序如下:

x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

y=2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(4*pi*x);

plot(x,y)

例5-2  绘制曲线。

程序如下:

t=0:0.1:2*pi;

x=t.*sin(3*t);

y=t.*sin(t).*sin(t);

plot(x,y);

plot函数最简单的调用格式是只包含一个输入参数:

plot(x)

在这种情况下,当x是实向量时,以该向量元素的下标为横坐标,元素值为纵坐标画出一条连续曲线,这实际上是绘制折线图。

5.1.2  绘制多根二维曲线

1.plot函数的输入参数是矩阵形式

(1) 当x是向量,y是有一维与x同维的矩阵时,则绘制出多根不同颜色的曲线。曲线条数等于y矩阵的另一维数,x被作为这些曲线共同的横坐标。

(2) 当x,y是同维矩阵时,则以x,y对应列元素为横、纵坐标分别绘制曲线,曲线条数等于矩阵的列数。

(3) 对只包含一个输入参数的plot函数,当输入参数是实矩阵时,则按列绘制每列元素值相对其下标的曲线,曲线条数等于输入参数矩阵的列数。

当输入参数是复数矩阵时,则按列分别以元素实部和虚部为横、纵坐标绘制多条曲线。

2.含多个输入参数的plot函数

调用格式为:

plot(x1,y1,x2,y2,…,xn,yn)

(1) 当输入参数都为向量时,x1和y1,x2和y2,…,xn和yn分别组成一组向量对,每一组向量对的长度可以不同。每一向量对可以绘制出一条曲线,这样可以在同一坐标内绘制出多条曲线。

(2) 当输入参数有矩阵形式时,配对的x,y按对应列元素为横、纵坐标分别绘制曲线,曲线条数等于矩阵的列数。

例5-3  分析下列程序绘制的曲线。

x1=linspace(0,2*pi,100);

x2=linspace(0,3*pi,100);

x3=linspace(0,4*pi,100);

y1=sin(x1);

y2=1+sin(x2);

y3=2+sin(x3);

x=[x1;x2;x3]’;

y=[y1;y2;y3]’;

plot(x,y,x1,y1-1)

3.具有两个纵坐标标度的图形

在MATLAB中,如果需要绘制出具有不同纵坐标标度的两个图形,可以使用plotyy绘图函数。调用格式为:

plotyy(x1,y1,x2,y2)

其中x1,y1对应一条曲线,x2,y2对应另一条曲线。横坐标的标度相同,纵坐标有两个,左纵坐标用于x1,y1数据对,右纵坐标用于x2,y2数据对。

例5-4  用不同标度在同一坐标内绘制曲线y1=0.2e-0.5xcos(4πx) 和y2=2e-0.5xcos(πx)。

程序如下:

x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

y1=0.2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(4*pi*x);

y2=2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(pi*x);

plotyy(x,y1,x,y2);

4.图形保持

hold on/off命令控制是保持原有图形还是刷新原有图形,不带参数的hold命令在两种状态之间进行切换。

例5-5  采用图形保持,在同一坐标内绘制曲线y1=0.2e-0.5xcos(4πx) 和y2=2e-0.5xcos(πx)。

程序如下:

x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

y1=0.2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(4*pi*x);

plot(x,y1)

hold on

y2=2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(pi*x);

plot(x,y2);

hold off

5.1.3  设置曲线样式

MATLAB提供了一些绘图选项,用于确定所绘曲线的线型、颜色和数据点标记符号,它们可以组合使用。例如,“b-.”表示蓝色点划线,“y:d”表示黄色虚线并用菱形符标记数据点。当选项省略时,MATLAB规定,线型一律用实线,颜色将根据曲线的先后顺序依次。

要设置曲线样式可以在plot函数中加绘图选项,其调用格式为:

plot(x1,y1,选项1,x2,y2,选项2,…,xn,yn,选项n)

例5-6  在同一坐标内,分别用不同线型和颜色绘制曲线y1=0.2e-0.5xcos(4πx) 和y2=2e-0.5xcos(πx),标记两曲线交叉点。

程序如下:

x=linspace(0,2*pi,1000);

y1=0.2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(4*pi*x);

y2=2*exp(-0.5*x).*cos(pi*x);

k=find(abs(y1-y2)<1e-2);        %查找y1与y2相等点(近似相等)的下标

x1=x(k);                           %取y1与y2相等点的x坐标

y3=0.2*exp(-0.5*x1).*cos(4*pi*x1);    %求y1与y2值相等点的y坐标

plot(x,y1,x,y2,’k:’,x1,y3,’bp’);

5.1.4  图形标注与坐标控制

1.图形标注

有关图形标注函数的调用格式为:

title(图形名称)

xlabel(x轴说明)

ylabel(y轴说明)

text(x,y,图形说明)

legend(图例1,图例2,…)

函数中的说明文字,除使用标准的ASCII字符外,还可使用LaTeX格式的控制字符,这样就可以在图形上添加希腊字母、数学符号及公式等内容。例如,text(0.3,0.5,‘sin({\omega}t+{\beta})’)将得到标注效果sin(ωt+β)。

例5-7  在0≤x≤2p区间内,绘制曲线y1=2e-0.5x和y2=cos(4πx),并给图形添加图形标注。

程序如下:

x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

y1=2*exp(-0.5*x);

y2=cos(4*pi*x);

plot(x,y1,x,y2)

title(‘x from 0 to 2{\pi}’);             %加图形标题

xlabel(‘Variable X’);                 %加X轴说明

ylabel(‘Variable Y’);                  %加Y轴说明

text(0.8,1.5,’曲线y1=2e^{-0.5x}’);      %在指定位置添加图形说明

text(2.5,1.1,’曲线y2=cos(4{\pi}x)’);

legend(‘y1’,‘ y2’)                     %加图例

2.坐标控制

axis函数的调用格式为:

axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax])

axis函数功能丰富,常用的格式还有:

axis equal:纵、横坐标轴采用等长刻度。

axis square:产生正方形坐标系(缺省为矩形)。

axis auto:使用缺省设置。

axis off:取消坐标轴。

axis on:显示坐标轴。

给坐标加网格线用grid命令来控制。grid on/off命令控制是画还是不画网格线,不带参数的grid命令在两种状态之间进行切换。

给坐标加边框用box命令来控制。box on/off命令控制是加还是不加边框线,不带参数的box命令在两种状态之间进行切换。

例5-8  在同一坐标中,可以绘制3个同心圆,并加坐标控制。

程序如下:

t=0:0.01:2*pi;

x=exp(i*t);

y=[x;2*x;3*x]’;

plot(y)

grid on;            %加网格线

box on;            %加坐标边框

axis equal          %坐标轴采用等刻度

5.1.5  图形的可视化编辑

MATLAB 6.5版本在图形窗口中提供了可视化的图形编辑工具,利用图形窗口菜单栏或工具栏中的有关命令可以完成对窗口中各种图形对象的编辑处理。

在图形窗口上有一个菜单栏和工具栏。菜单栏包含File、Edit、View、Insert、Tools、Window和Help共7个菜单项,工具栏包含11个命令按钮。

5.1.6  对函数自适应采样的绘图函数

fplot函数的调用格式为:  

fplot(fname,lims,tol,选项)

其中fname为函数名,以字符串形式出现,lims为x,y的取值范围,tol为相对允许误差,其系统默认值为2e-3。选项定义与plot函数相同。

例5-9  用fplot函数绘制f(x)=cos(tan(πx))的曲线。

命令如下:

fplot(‘cos(tan(pi*x))’,[ 0,1],1e-4)

5.1.7  图形窗口的分割

subplot函数的调用格式为:

subplot(m,n,p)

该函数将当前图形窗口分成m×n个绘图区,即每行n个,共m行,区号按行优先编号,且选定第p个区为当前活动区。在每一个绘图区允许以不同的坐标系单独绘制图形。

例5-10  在图形窗口中,以子图形式同时绘制多根曲线。

5.2  其他二维图形

5.2.1  其他坐标系下的二维数据曲线图

1.对数坐标图形

MATLAB提供了绘制对数和半对数坐标曲线的函数,调用格式为:

semilogx(x1,y1,选项1,x2,y2,选项2,…)

semilogy(x1,y1,选项1,x2,y2,选项2,…)

loglog(x1,y1,选项1,x2,y2,选项2,…)

例5-11  绘制y=10×2的对数坐标图并与直角线性坐标图进行比较。

2.极坐标图

polar函数用来绘制极坐标图,其调用格式为:

polar(theta,rho,选项)

其中theta为极坐标极角,rho为极坐标矢径,选项的内容与plot函数相似。

例5-12  绘制r=sin(t)cos(t)的极坐标图,并标记数据点。

程序如下:

t=0:pi/50:2*pi;

r=sin(t).*cos(t);

polar(t,r,’-*’);

5.2.2  二维统计分析图

在MATLAB中,二维统计分析图形很多,常见的有条形图、阶梯图、杆图和填充图等,所采用的函数分别是:

bar(x,y,选项)

stairs(x,y,选项)

stem(x,y,选项)

fill(x1,y1,选项1,x2,y2,选项2,…)

例5-13  分别以条形图、阶梯图、杆图和填充图形式绘制曲线y=2sin(x)。

程序如下:

x=0:pi/10:2*pi;

y=2*sin(x);

subplot(2,2,1);bar(x,y,’g’);

title(‘bar(x,y,”g”)’);axis([0,7,-2,2]);

subplot(2,2,2);stairs(x,y,’b’);

title(‘stairs(x,y,”b”)’);axis([0,7,-2,2]);

subplot(2,2,3);stem(x,y,’k’);

title(‘stem(x,y,”k”)’);axis([0,7,-2,2]);

subplot(2,2,4);fill(x,y,’y’);

title(‘fill(x,y,”y”)’);axis([0,7,-2,2]);

MATLAB提供的统计分析绘图函数还有很多,例如,用来表示各元素占总和的百分比的饼图、复数的相量图等等。

例5-14  绘制图形:

(1) 某企业全年各季度的产值(单位:万元)分别为:2347,1827,2043,3025,试用饼图作统计分析。

(2) 绘制复数的相量图:7+2.9i、2-3i和-1.5-6i。

程序如下:

subplot(1,2,1);

pie([2347,1827,2043,3025]);

title(‘饼图’);

legend(‘一季度’,’二季度’,’三季度’,’四季度’);

subplot(1,2,2);

compass([7+2.9i,2-3i,-1.5-6i]);

title(‘相量图’);

5.3  隐函数绘图

MATLAB提供了一个ezplot函数绘制隐函数图形,下面介绍其用法。

(1) 对于函数f = f(x),ezplot函数的调用格式为:

ezplot(f):在默认区间-2π<x<2π绘制f = f(x)的图形。

ezplot(f, [a,b]):在区间a<x<b绘制f = f(x)的图形。

(2) 对于隐函数f = f(x,y),ezplot函数的调用格式为:

ezplot(f):在默认区间-2π<x<2π和-2π<y<2π绘制f(x,y) = 0的图形。

ezplot(f, [xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax]):在区间xmin<x<xmax和ymin<y<ymax绘制f(x,y) = 0的图形。

ezplot(f, [a,b]):在区间a<x<b和a<y< b绘制f(x,y) = 0的图形。

(3) 对于参数方程x = x(t)和y = y(t),ezplot函数的调用格式为:

ezplot(x,y):在默认区间0<t<2π绘制x=x(t)和y=y(t)的图形。

ezplot(x,y, [tmin,tmax]):在区间tmin < t < tmax绘制x=x(t)和y=y(t)的图形。

例5-15  隐函数绘图应用举例。

程序如下:

subplot(2,2,1);

ezplot(‘x^2+y^2-9’);axis equal

subplot(2,2,2);

ezplot(‘x^3+y^3-5*x*y+1/5’)

subplot(2,2,3);

ezplot(‘cos(tan(pi*x))’,[ 0,1])

subplot(2,2,4);

ezplot(‘8*cos(t)’,’4*sqrt(2)*sin(t)’,[0,2*pi])

5.4  三维图形

5.4.1  三维曲线

plot3函数与plot函数用法十分相似,其调用格式为:

plot3(x1,y1,z1,选项1,x2,y2,z2,选项2,…,xn,yn,zn,选项n)

其中每一组x,y,z组成一组曲线的坐标参数,选项的定义和plot函数相同。当x,y,z是同维向量时,则x,y,z 对应元素构成一条三维曲线。当x,y,z是同维矩阵时,则以x,y,z对应列元素绘制三维曲线,曲线条数等于矩阵列数。

例5-16  绘制三维曲线。

程序如下:

t=0:pi/100:20*pi;

x=sin(t);

y=cos(t);

z=t.*sin(t).*cos(t);

plot3(x,y,z);

title(‘Line in 3-D Space’);

xlabel(‘X’);ylabel(‘Y’);zlabel(‘Z’);

grid on;

5.4.2  三维曲面

1.产生三维数据

在MATLAB中,利用meshgrid函数产生平面区域内的网格坐标矩阵。其格式为:

x=a:d1:b; y=c:d2:d;

[X,Y]=meshgrid(x,y);

语句执行后,矩阵X的每一行都是向量x,行数等于向量y的元素的个数,矩阵Y的每一列都是向量y,列数等于向量x的元素的个数。

2.绘制三维曲面的函数

surf函数和mesh函数的调用格式为:

mesh(x,y,z,c)

surf(x,y,z,c)

一般情况下,x,y,z是维数相同的矩阵。x,y是网格坐标矩阵,z是网格点上的高度矩阵,c用于指定在不同高度下的颜色范围。

例5-17  绘制三维曲面图z=sin(x+sin(y))-x/10。

程序如下:

[x,y]=meshgrid(0:0.25:4*pi);

z=sin(x+sin(y))-x/10;

mesh(x,y,z);

axis([0 4*pi 0 4*pi -2.5 1]);

此外,还有带等高线的三维网格曲面函数meshc和带底座的三维网格曲面函数meshz。其用法与mesh类似,不同的是meshc还在xy平面上绘制曲面在z轴方向的等高线,meshz还在xy平面上绘制曲面的底座。

例5-18  在xy平面内选择区域[-8,8]×[-8,8],绘制4种三维曲面图。

程序如下:

[x,y]=meshgrid(-8:0.5:8);

z=sin(sqrt(x.^2+y.^2))./sqrt(x.^2+y.^2+eps);

subplot(2,2,1);

mesh(x,y,z);

title(‘mesh(x,y,z)’)

subplot(2,2,2);

meshc(x,y,z);

title(‘meshc(x,y,z)’)

subplot(2,2,3);

meshz(x,y,z)

title(‘meshz(x,y,z)’)

subplot(2,2,4);

surf(x,y,z);

title(‘surf(x,y,z)’)

3.标准三维曲面

sphere函数的调用格式为:

[x,y,z]=sphere(n)

cylinder函数的调用格式为:

[x,y,z]= cylinder(R,n)

MATLAB还有一个peaks 函数,称为多峰函数,常用于三维曲面的演示。

例5-19  绘制标准三维曲面图形。

程序如下:

t=0:pi/20:2*pi;

[x,y,z]= cylinder(2+sin(t),30);

subplot(2,2,1);

surf(x,y,z);

subplot(2,2,2);

[x,y,z]=sphere;

surf(x,y,z);

subplot(2,1,2);

[x,y,z]=peaks(30);

surf(x,y,z);

5.4.3  其他三维图形

在介绍二维图形时,曾提到条形图、杆图、饼图和填充图等特殊图形,它们还可以以三维形式出现,使用的函数分别是bar3、stem3、pie3 和fill3。

bar3函数绘制三维条形图,常用格式为:

bar3(y)

bar3(x,y)

stem3函数绘制离散序列数据的三维杆图,常用格式为:

stem3(z)

stem3(x,y,z)

pie3函数绘制三维饼图,常用格式为:

pie3(x)

fill3函数等效于三维函数fill,可在三维空间内绘制出填充过的多边形,常用格式为:

fill3(x,y,z,c)

例5-20  绘制三维图形:

(1) 绘制魔方阵的三维条形图。

(2) 以三维杆图形式绘制曲线y=2sin(x)。

(3) 已知x=[2347,1827,2043,3025],绘制饼图。

(4) 用随机的顶点坐标值画出五个黄色三角形。

程序如下:

subplot(2,2,1);

bar3(magic(4))

subplot(2,2,2);

y=2*sin(0:pi/10:2*pi);

stem3(y);

subplot(2,2,3);

pie3([2347,1827,2043,3025]);

subplot(2,2,4);

fill3(rand(3,5),rand(3,5),rand(3,5), ‘y’ )

例5-21  绘制多峰函数的瀑布图和等高线图。

程序如下:

subplot(1,2,1);

[X,Y,Z]=peaks(30);

waterfall(X,Y,Z)

xlabel(‘X-axis’),ylabel(‘Y-axis’),zlabel(‘Z-axis’);

subplot(1,2,2);

contour3(X,Y,Z,12,’k’);     %其中12代表高度的等级数

xlabel(‘X-axis’),ylabel(‘Y-axis’),zlabel(‘Z-axis’);

5.5  图形修饰处理

5.5.1 视点处理

MATLAB提供了设置视点的函数view,其调用格式为:

view(az,el)

其中az为方位角,el为仰角,它们均以度为单位。系统缺省的视点定义为方位角-37.5°,仰角30°。

例5-22  从不同视点观察三维曲线。

5.5.2 色彩处理

1.颜色的向量表示

MATLAB除用字符表示颜色外,还可以用含有3个元素的向量表示颜色。向量元素在[0,1]范围取值,3个元素分别表示红、绿、蓝3种颜色的相对亮度,称为RGB三元组。

2.色图

色图(Color map)是MATLAB系统引入的概念。在MATLAB中,每个图形窗口只能有一个色图。色图是m×3 的数值矩阵,它的每一行是RGB三元组。色图矩阵可以人为地生成,也可以调用MATLAB提供的函数来定义色图矩阵。

3.三维表面图形的着色

三维表面图实际上就是在网格图的每一个网格片上涂上颜色。surf函数用缺省的着色方式对网格片着色。除此之外,还可以用shading命令来改变着色方式。

shading faceted命令将每个网格片用其高度对应的颜色进行着色,但网格线仍保留着,其颜色是黑色。这是系统的缺省着色方式。

shading flat命令将每个网格片用同一个颜色进行着色,且网格线也用相应的颜色,从而使得图形表面显得更加光滑。

shading interp命令在网格片内采用颜色插值处理,得出的表面图显得最光滑。

例5-23  3种图形着色方式的效果展示。

程序如下:

[x,y,z]=sphere(20);

colormap(copper);

subplot(1,3,1);

surf(x,y,z);

axis equal

subplot(1,3,2);

surf(x,y,z);shading flat;

axis equal

subplot(1,3,3);

surf(x,y,z);shading interp;

axis equal

5.5.3 光照处理

MATLAB提供了灯光设置的函数,其调用格式为:

light(‘Color’,选项1,’Style’,选项2,’Position’,选项3)

例5-24  光照处理后的球面。

程序如下:

[x,y,z]=sphere(20);

subplot(1,2,1);

surf(x,y,z);axis equal;

light(‘Posi’,[0,1,1]);

shading interp;

hold on;

plot3(0,1,1,’p’);text(0,1,1,’ light’);

subplot(1,2,2);

surf(x,y,z);axis equal;

light(‘Posi’,[1,0,1]);

shading interp;

hold on;

plot3(1,0,1,’p’);text(1,0,1,’ light’);

5.5.4 图形的裁剪处理

例5-25  绘制三维曲面图,并进行插值着色处理,裁掉图中x和y都小于0部分。

程序如下:

[x,y]=meshgrid(-5:0.1:5);

z=cos(x).*cos(y).*exp(-sqrt(x.^2+y.^2)/4);

surf(x,y,z);shading interp;

pause                 %程序暂停

i=find(x<=0&y<=0);

z1=z;z1(i)=NaN;

surf(x,y,z1);shading interp;

为了展示裁剪效果,第一个曲面绘制完成后暂停,然后显示裁剪后的曲面。

5.6 图像处理与动画制作

5.6.1 图像处理

1.imread和imwrite函数

imread和imwrite函数分别用于将图像文件读入MATLAB工作空间,以及将图像数据和色图数据一起写入一定格式的图像文件。MATLAB支持多种图像文件格式,如.bmp、.jpg、.jpeg、.tif等。

2.image和imagesc函数

这两个函数用于图像显示。为了保证图像的显示效果,一般还应使用colormap函数设置图像色图。

例5-26  有一图像文件flower.jpg,在图形窗口显示该图像。

程序如下:

[x,cmap]=imread(‘flower.jpg’);  %读取图像的数据阵和色图阵

image(x);colormap(cmap);

axis image off    %保持宽高比并取消坐标轴

5.6.2 动画制作

MATLAB提供getframe、moviein和movie函数进行动画制作。

1.getframe函数

getframe函数可截取一幅画面信息(称为动画中的一帧),一幅画面信息形成一个很大的列向量。显然,保存n幅图面就需一个大矩阵。

2.moviein函数

moviein(n)函数用来建立一个足够大的n列矩阵。该矩阵用来保存n幅画面的数据,以备播放。之所以要事先建立一个大矩阵,是为了提高程序运行速度。

3.movie函数

movie(m,n)函数播放由矩阵m所定义的画面n次,缺省时播放一次。

例5-27  绘制了peaks函数曲面并且将它绕z轴旋转。

程序如下

[X,Y,Z]=peaks(30);

surf(X,Y,Z)

axis([-3,3,-3,3,-10,10])

axis off;

shading interp;

colormap(hot);

m=moviein(20);            %建立一个20列大矩阵

for i=1:20

view(-37.5+24*(i-1),30)      %改变视点

m(:,i)=getframe;            %将图形保存到m矩阵

end

movie(m,2);                 %播放画面2次

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Swedish Course in YouTube

— A very good course online

 

初级瑞典语

8. da dian hua

10. 定语

初级瑞典语 10:定语
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已公布高送转名单

引用地址:http://www.xici.net/d141515084.htm

600873五洲明珠       10转16.861派5

300074华平股份       10转15派10

300078中瑞思创       10转12-15

600703三安光电       10转12派2

300143星河生物       10转12

300070碧水源           10转10-12

002479富春环保        10转10派5

002481双塔食品        10转10派3

002299圣农发展        10转10派2.5

300022吉峰农机        10转10派2

300057万顺股份        10转10派1.8

000425徐工机械        10转10派1.2

002283天润曲轴        10送3转7派1

600406国电南瑞        10转10派1

600307酒钢宏兴        10转10派1

300048合康变频        10转10

300087荃银高科        10转10

600303曙光股份        10转10

002171精诚铜业        10转10派2

002335科华恒盛        10转8-10派8-10

002132恒星科技        10转8-10

600087长航油运        10送转8-10

002362汉王科技        10转8-10

002176江特电机        10转8派0.35

000979中弘地产        10转8

002483润邦股份        10转8

300118东方日升        10转6-8

002408齐翔腾达        10转6-8

300008上海佳豪        10转7派3

002272川润股份        10转4-6

002230科大讯飞        10转5派2

601678滨化股份        10转5派1

000850华茂股份        10送3转2派0.34

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几年来在瑞典买车养车的一些感想

— 转自 Kina

穷学生一个,属于能攒点小钱并且穷极无聊那种的。刚来瑞典的时候根本不会开车。但作为哥们天生对这些玩意有兴趣,所以再不会开车的情况下买了一辆,先晕一个。因为当时价格比较合适,直接就拿下了,我的第一辆车,volvo s40.

买车其实基本上就是blocket。有钱没时间也可以直接到车行,车行一般都有保,而且小毛病基本也都给你弄好了,其实也没吃亏到哪去。车行一般在Blocket上也能找得到,有几个朋友就是直接在车行买的,开的都不错。不过我的第一辆车还真不是这样的,是拍卖的,说道拍卖的车基本都是公司的,当然也有个人的,瑞典比较大的汽车拍卖公司,我知道的有3家。http://www.kvd.se/ http://www.netbil.se/http://www.fordonskammaren.se/ 其中KVD最大,车最多遍布各地,netbil 也不错,主要在哥德堡,这两家优点就是车流量大,车比较新,有私家车,而且查车比较细,有什么问题,一般都能给你写出来,不过缺点也相对严重,就是价格比较贵,加上购车手续费(2800KR)一般和Blocket的平均价格也差不了多少。最后一个基本就在思京,也有车在马尔默。价格十分公道,不过车少,能买到称心的车基本看运气。我的第一辆车就在那里买的。

买车的时候因为没什么经验,没考虑太多,就是在网上瞎看了一些参考,其实说实话很多国内的经验不适合这里。例如瑞典的路况普遍比国内好,公里数的考虑不用太较真,有人说超过10万公里如何如何,其实年份比公里数重要,10年左右的车只要Service做得好,16,7万公里,只要发动机里面的timing belt换过,问题不大,当然低于10万更好。太低也要慎重,公里数低了说明车主开得短途太多,积碳会比较严重。

要看看其他车身上的东西才重要,那就是可能让你花银子的地方。

第一那就是油耗,我一般一年也就1万公里,平时有月票,所以不需要太省油的,你要是开车上下班就要考虑1.6以下的,1.3都行。

第二就是车身上其他耗材,这里个人觉得主要是扎和轮胎,这绝对是大头,一副新的好轮胎就是四分之一到三分之一的二手车的价格,一般一万公里能磨掉0.7左右的轮胎,所以买车的时候一定要看好了,别买回来开了一年就要换轮,最少2000+,有的车能摸到扎,看不见的可以直接问车主什么时候换的,换过没。冬胎是必不可少的,二手2000+

第三看看其他配件,挂钩啊,发动机加热啊,这些东西在你需要的时候就很有用了。一般到车行去装要5000+,要是买车的时候全带,那你就赚大了。

第四空调,有很多瑞典车没冷风,以前还行,现在的夏天真的有点热了,乡间小路开窗,上了高速就遭罪了。哥们第一辆车就是没有,钓鱼回来开到110的时候把脸都要吹掉了,不过也就那么几天,最多一个月,看你能不能忍了。有无空调一般会有3000-5000的差别,不差这钱,整了吧。

什么发动机变速箱什么的我就不内行了,大家自己查吧,网上有的是。不过个人觉得二手车10年左右的肯定声和震动比新车大,别太较真。

不过有一点是十分重要的,那就是要看有多少个车主,理想状态是真正的二手车,不过一般4个车主以内可以忍受。如果你看到这车平均一年换一个车主,就算白给你也得慎重,因为养车也要花钱啊。https://www21.vv.se/fordonsfraga/ 这里可以查到车主数,大家参考。话又说回来,我的两辆车都是真正的二手车,开着还是比较舒心。

一般二手车50000左右的价格应该可以了,5万以上一个月一般会有5,6百的掉价。当然价钱越低性价比越高,不过劝大家一句,15000-20000Kr以内的车最好慎重,除非你懂车,要不到修车厂的油钱也够你呛。我第一辆车换了扎,买了冬胎60000左右,排量1.6,还行,高速有点面,油耗9个左右,对,你没看错9个油!没经验啊,排量低的不一定省油。现在想起来不值,因为当时看重8万的历程了,其实没啥用,在开几万还要换timing belt,5000+ 费事还费钱。

第二辆总结经验,还是一样年份s40,又晕一下,没办法就好这口。不过是2.0T得了,该有的都有。8个油不到。现在快到15万公里了,开着比第一辆爽多了,根本就是两辆车(这不是废话吗)。Turbo在高速上基本就谁也不惧了,不过还是要小心驾驶,安全第一。小声说一句现在车便宜一些了,这种车现在也就4万出头。

最后说一下保险,Volvo当然volvia,不过其实别的也行,我现在用的是Atava,便宜省事。半保一年4000左右,年龄越低,保险越贵(瑞典这点十分无奈),所以有的一手车名义上有两个车主,因为老爸的保险会比儿子的保险便宜一半。累死了,不写了,欢迎大家补充。

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瑞典驾照血泪史

— 转自Kina

接触汽车很晚。因为我一直觉得,有些技能,需要的时候,自然就会了。车技也是。09年,因为兼职需要,回国十天直接跟师傅上了几天路,弄了个中华人民共和国照就出来了。就开始在瑞典的大街小巷,山里森林里欧洲高速上狂飙。

以前是没什么人敢坐我的车的。我还清楚记得第一次朋友坐我车,指引我去另一个城市,一路上怎么转都转不出城,后来他干脆下来帮我开了。那时我对老司机的崇拜有如毛主席,主席的话不敢不听。 让往左不敢往右。回来他坐我旁边,我一直开。还好,手不抖,会跑偏。他就一直纠正我,不要老是跑到右边去。结果到现在我还是贴着右边边线走。这个老司机,半年后,去挪威路上他替我手,我休息,我坐在旁边,一直纠正他,这时我在瑞典都开了几万公里了,心里回想当年,感叹到,得道有先后,勤能补拙啊。才没想多久,他老人家开到逆路去了。我赶紧让他下车。我来。

想想真应该感激两个好朋友,一个比我好一点的司机,一个十几年的老司机,中国联通维修队,经常开皮卡上山下乡。这两个人一直耐心的坐着我车去另一个三百多里外的城市。回来,天黑雾大,第一次见识瑞典的山雾,如入云宵,五米之外不辩路标。于是,这个老司机担起重任,无照驾驶,一脚油一脚刹车的,五个小时后,总算安全回到家。回家老司机就烧香拜佛了。从此不再跟我出门了。

然后,我就单独上路了,单枪匹马去加油站租了个高尔夫,就杀到两百公里外的前女友城市,上了高速,才发现远光灯开不了,车内指示灯也一片黑。又开回加油站,油站的人说,你得把仪表指示灯打开啊。当时真想钻到车底去。小小调整了一把,重新上路了。晚上总算是安全到达。第二天回来,GPS上显示是一条直路,结果我一直盯着它看,前面突然一个环岛,刹了一脚车,虽然是新手,也有点常识,不能刹死。结果还是七十进环岛,只能往右出,冲出右路基后停下了。整车都是侧的。从此再也不相信GPS了。回到家,发现前轮扁了,有可能是早上进环岛磕的路基,轮框有一个地方凹了。找加油站,结果反被罚了二千,而且,理论时,加油站还说,就算只是坏了一个灯,你都要赔钱。

总是去加油站也不是办法。于是买个破车一劳永逸。从首都那把97年的reno 19开回来时雄纠纠气昂昂,后来被一辆警车盯上了,一直尾行我,最后让我停在路边,我以为这就跟国内一样,下车聊聊,派个烟。想也没想,就把车门一开,直接出去了。结果两警察叔叔傻眼了,把警车门打开做掩护,拔枪指着我,说了一堆放下武器,坦白从宽之类的话语,我听话的双手抱头,坐进车里去。这是我第一次和警察叔叔亲密接触。省去若干细节文字。警察走后,天黑了,我又上路了。第一辆车从首都开了五个小时,回到小城市,在E4高速上超了个大车,回到右道时,天下大雪,路面状况不好,看见右边又是虚线,以为还在左道,再并了一次,结果,到尽头发现是加速道尽头,赶忙并左道,大雪积得太厚,转向不足,直接一百六蹭护栏,右后视镜和右窗全毁了,仍不敢刹车,一脚油门,甩了后面的大车,检查了一下,不影响驾驶。终因不过年检,报废了。那一段日子,天天跑汽车回收厂捡旧零件,往车上凑,对车有了深刻认识,终因设备不足,无法修复,需要焊接工作。于是报废。

后来又换了个97的欧宝vectra,非常喜欢它流线型的左右后视镜,此车真正的省油,这一阶段我开始悟出了些东西,车坏了,不是重大问题一般自已解决,自已换三滤,换刹车片,调手刹,开车开始注意省油。对车的构造开始深入了解。开始在下坡道和环岛绞尽脑汁更快,更省油,有时开一百多公里,完全不用踩刹车。环岛基本是四档五档过。过弯过环岛基本是甩尾出弯,想起头文字D里,拓海问阿木,漂移是什么?阿木回答,打打方向盘,拉拉手刹,尾巴一飘,型啊。拓海说,我不觉得型啊,不就是向右打点然向左打吗?阿木说拓海不懂飘。。。我真的不懂飘移,我只是想更省油,更快的过弯和过环岛。久而久之,习惯成自然了。也没什么人坐我的车,坐了不是头晕就是想吐。一过环岛后面的全挤在一块了。还好,我一直独来独往,深夜里在山路里静静的引擎声,还有那首蓝莲花。我也很感谢我的前女友,如果不是那些吵架的夜里,我也不会风雪夜雾的开回我的城市,无论是风大雨大,雾大雪大,山路里可见的不可见的东西,全都陪伴我在那一些深夜里,自然风道里吹进来的湿冷水气,吹在我冰凉的脸庞,上面,是一双暗夜精灵渴望光明的眼睛。那时候,经常在夜里,把车灯关掉,就这样行驶在山路上,人本来就是动物,夜里很快就能适应这种夜视,能看清路分隔线,还有右边的距离标。适应了,也就跟黄昏差不多。因为夜里实在是无聊到可以跟方向盘说话。

这一时期倒也相安无事,但是只要是碰上警车,肯定会被警察叔叔问候,不管是挪威还是瑞典,无一例外,查驾照加酒精测试。曾经过完一个环岛,警察叔叔就追上来了,二话不说截停了。极度怀疑我酒后驾车。但事实我从未酒后驾车,连红灯也没闯过一次。

从此,无法停止我对欧盟驾照的渴望,心里总是提心吊胆,不知哪日便上警察局,哪日又被警察抓下车。于是积极的准备,看书,备考,按书上的要求规范自已的驾驶,这么坚持了几个月,终因公路局的回复而流产,公路局说,考驾照需要瑞典承认的ID,护照不承认。当时万念俱灰,从前,银行的人求我办ID,我一腔爱国热血,唯我中华人民共和国护照乃本人有效证件,有请各国党政机关给予必要通行方便,其它ID概不需要。最后,再往银行去,银行人说,老客户也没办法,现在法律规定必须要去税务局办。等于没说。百般申请ID无门后,继续用中华人民共和国驾照流窜于各市,我并不是想报复这个社会,我只是想行使我驾驶的权力。

shit happens,在回了一次母校聚会,第二天酒醒后就上路了,在一个急弯,以前夜里是漂过的,觉得这次也行,不知道是不是酒后神经衰弱,结果打晚了半秒,后轮甩出去了,倒致前轮也失去抓地,整车就侧滑出路了,躲开了大树,撞人家木屋里去了。什么都想开了,安全气囊根本不管用,真正的决定因素还是车速。归来再也不碰车了。从此看到急弯警示箭头就心里发毛。警察叔叔警告我,一年后,大中华照不管用了,再出事,属于无证驾驶。

就这样大半年过去了,自从哥几个合伙买了辆宝马再去挪威,那些我曾经很熟悉的路,那些我很喜欢的弯道,那些最有挑战性的下坡道。这又激起了我一个车手的脾气。我坐在宝马里,握着方向盘,又在挪威的山路里上路了,每过一个弯,我开始计划弯度,入弯角度,切弯,提前度。看到急弯辅助路标,从害怕到紧张,从刹车到松油,我心里问自已,我这是怎么了?以前我可是一把到位的,从来不会去想这些事情,感觉一到,车已过。思考的更多的是如何把弯过好。也就只有在挪威,我还能开一开,回到瑞典,我又是无证驾驶。

ID就在六月份的时候办下来了,感谢东游的idea,要是没有ID,这最重要的条件,我想,我今天不会有这样的成就。然后就7月3号跑南闯北的上危险教育课程,在三百公里外的首都上risk 1 education,英文的,然后六号又晚上三点赶路去南部olfstrom滑道训练,也是英文的。教官特意为了我,全程英文教学,瑞典人听不懂的,就看字幕,实在是感动。这是考驾照必过的两个科目,属于交钱体验课。完事了,直接,定了7.13的理论考试,买了一套模拟试题,做了做,剩了一套没做,属于十全九美,中午一点,照相签名,我以为会有六十多分,结果一出成绩,57分,比及格多了五分,还好,总算过了。十三天后,路考,7.26,早上八点半骑车去,考前综合症,根本没睡到三个小时,整夜的失眠。就像发了一场梦似的,再回到公路局时,问考官我过了吗?他很坚定的回答,当然,那肯定了。还撕了张成绩单我,说是凭此单,和ID,就等同于驾照,正式的驾照十四个工作日内寄给我。

从此,再也不用怕警察了。

从此,我不是一个车手,我是一个司机。

其实所有的车对于我来说,都是一个方向盘加四个轮子。没有一辆车是安全的。

安全驾驶,课没白上,考试是一种经历,但是,学习到的知识是终身受用。

哪怕我拿照后,依然没有人坐我的车,我还是一个合格的司机。

再次感谢居家好男人,不厌其烦的接受我的骚扰长达一年,非常有耐心的一个好人。

补充路考细节。让有需要的童鞋多一些经验。我也是从这里得到很多人的经验,我也将有问必答,有求必应。让更多的人一次过。

****************************************普通分隔线*******************************

26号早上就像做梦一样,醒来后,考官就说我过了。拿到成绩单的那天早上,我骑着自行车在警察局附近转悠了一上午,就是没有一个警察查我驾照。

考完理论后,我就一直在想这个路考的事情。之前也了解了很多。这里也介绍一下路考的的戌绩单上的内容,可以看图,http://korkortsportalen.se/upload/bilder/protokoll/korprovsprotokoll_2009.gif

(以下文字引自yesysj同学的文章。)考试的时候考官会有这张表格,上面有很多项目,只要错1个项目你就挂了,十分严格。考试是考你在25种路况下6种开车能力的运用情况。具体如下:

6种能力:a. utföra kontroller på fordonet och identifiera risker förknippade.. (车辆检查,刹车,车灯等等。)

         b. Uppvisa en rutinmässig manövering samt använda olika sätt att bromsa fordonet.(控制汽车的能力,比如会不会开跑偏了,刹车踩的是不是时候等等)

         c. 环保架车。(如何换档最省油?如何减少尾气排放?方法是使用跳挡1-3,2-4,3-5 这样换挡, 不要急刹车,远处看到红灯,可以丢开油门,利用发动机制动,不要拖档等等)

         d. Tillampa de regler (交通规则运用,比如什么时候让右?什么是时候即让左也让右等等)

         e. identifiera risker (在不同的情况下提前判断危险的能力)

         f. säkerhetsmarginaler (交通安全,开车有没注意安全,有没让人等等)

         g. hastighet (车速问题,不同路段有不同的限速要求,30,50,70,90)

25种情况:

(1)Säkerhetskontoll 车辆安全检查   (2)funktionsbeskrivning 车辆功能指导 (3) Särsk prov/bromsn 刹车测试 (4)parkering 停车(5)backning 倒车(6)start i lutning 上破起步  (7)Vänding U-TURN (8)Avändade av reglage交规运用  (9)Oskyddade trafikanter 不受保护的车辆或人 (10)körning i körfält/byte 变道  (11)gatukorsning路口 (12)singalrerad korsning有交通灯的路口  (13)cirkulationsplats环岛  (14)passerande av stillast通过静止物体(15)självständing körning mot mål找路能力  (16)körning i vägarbetsområde 施工道路  (17)järnvägs铁轨  (18)smal väg小路  (19)motoväg高速 (20)infart på landsväg山路  (21)sväng från landsväg山路转弯  (22)omkörning超车 (23)nedsatt sikt夜晚 (24)riskfyllt/ halt väglag滑道(25)övrigt其他

六项能力在二十五种路况下都有考察,比如考到了山路,如果在山路转弯,你没有注意车速,也没有危机意识,那么,那一种路况里的E和G就打叉,就挂掉了。当然各个城市的路况不一样,二十五种不会全考。我大概考了十种。考试时间为四十分钟至一小时,由考官说指令,你按指令开。比如向左向右,或者往E4方向。去医院,去学校。一路上考官就看着你的动作和车况,每过完一种情况,他就做出选择。

考前一晚上早早就睡了,结果还是考前综合症,半夜失眠到三点。早上七点又醒了。一晚上都梦见自已在开车。左转右转,其实我怀疑就是我翻来翻去的。考前特意拉了个巴基斯坦人去练车,都说中巴是好朋友,这家伙考了三次才过,经验丰富,带我去把三条考试路线全跑遍了,我还是不死心,硬要拉着他再跑一圈,他死活不肯,还安慰我说,不用了,练得多了脑筋痛,明天状态会不好。适可而止,今天早点回去休息吧。你在瑞典开了一年多车了,肯定没有问题。我想想也是,那就这样吧。

第二天想着是开车过去呢还是骑车过去。后来想想,还是骑车吧,万一挂了,无照开不回来了。还是不要太嚣张。八点五十分的时候跟前台打招呼说我不会瑞典语,他说他会跟考官说的了。九点见到考官,他非常善良,又握手又是用英语客套的,还说会说慢一点,说清楚一点,不会让我误会的。我超感动。想着,不过我只怨我自已点背,与人无关。

上车坐好后,查了ID,签了名,大概讲了一下规则,我就问,这上面的每一项后面的ABCDEF代表什么?他说,呵呵,等你考完就告诉你。丫的,老子早就知道了,要有一项有叉,就完了,果然是笑面虎。然后他让我检查个车灯。我说,不行,我要先检查一下助力,然后转了一把方向,看看外面轮胎果然有动。然后再下车看灯。我让他帮我踩踩刹车。我看了一下,灯OK。之前他回去拿笔的时候,我自个在查轮胎,查刹车片,他一回来,一个劲的说好,不错。有前途。然后,现在,果然,我说我还想看看引擎什么的,刹车油什么的,他说,不用查啦,这车是公路局的,啥问题也没有。都省了,走吧。这时我看见他立马就打了个勾给我。我心里一乐,有信心了。倒没那么紧张了。

然后,就开始慢慢上路了,他说,刚开始五分钟,你不适应车,所以车抖动,或者死火,都不记入成绩。放心开,没事。我马上回应他,请允许我实时检查一下刹车,话一完,立马一脚急刹,这老头一个抖动,差点眼镜都掉下来,虽然很不爽,但我看见他嘴角还是浮起一丝微笑。又开始摸他的笔,想给我一个勾。我觉得还不够,再给他打一针预防针,我又轻声跟他说,天下雨,一会要是路上开得比限速慢个十来公里,你老人家千万别嫌我妨碍交通,把我挂了啊。他微笑,看样子甚是满意,点头说,那肯定了,交规是死的,人是活的,我们开车肯定要参照环境嘛,放心开,大胆开。

然后就从公路局里开出来了,老头说,跟着E4方向走。我就一直照路牌开,出路口,右手规则,有红绿灯,遵守,转弯先三看了,然后再打灯,再三看,转弯慢,转到主路后,立马加速到达指定速度。这老头就开始跟我扯蛋了,问我是不是来自中国,来自哪一地,云云。都一一回答。一路都是landvag,七十码相安无事,在下坡时,volvo V50可能太重了,还是我忘形了,一看,都八十几了。松了点油门,赶紧跟老头大谈奋斗血泪史。在看看他手里的表格,没变化,估计是没看到。幸亏反应快。然后几大环岛过完后,这老头也没动作,我感觉就差不多了。因为我出环岛都有往右边看盲点再打灯,经常养成的习惯在此处得到了表现。然后就进高速,在高速上飙了一阵子,老头觉得OK了,一进加速道,我立马提到八十,再并到左道,先三看,再看盲区,打灯,我为了表现我谦虚谨慎,打完灯后又看,看完动方向盘,一边并一边还扭头看,这下老头话都说不出来了。就一直坐在那思考人生。第一个出口就早早收兵,让我掉头回市里。在停车让行时,停止牌前,我为了表现我确保安全,我还把手刹拉起来了。这是我和老巴研究出来的,因为上一次,他的车往后动了一点,考官直接把他挂了,我干脆拉手刹,事后证明是画蛇添足的。老头轻微不愉快,说,不用拉了。你用脚刹就行了。这个口子是要快速出去的,时间不等人。我唯唯是诺。虚心受教。看没车了,一脚油出去了,直接二档到六十再四档到八十,挂五档跑一百一。高速我还是比较自信的。说一百一,不会正负一公里的。这老头又给我建议了,让我两个手开车。我开车到现在一直是单车开,另一个手负责CD,DJ。他突然把我的右手放上去,我还真不习惯。真会挑毛病。只好照做,他又拍我肩膀,说放松点,不要像抓狂一样,就像你平时阅读时抱本书就好了。我又假装很轻松的样子,这样子弄来弄去,我还能保持一百一,这老头也不怕死。高速也敢乱动司机。

一阵尴尬的沉默后,他又不甘寂寞了,又开始问我,是不是在中国开了很多年车?我没在中国开过车,但是,B是装出来的。我说,是的。略懂。这一下,自找麻烦了,老头说,那咱到市里溜达一下吧,老在高速上也不成啊,咱们总是要回市里的。我原来估计就跑完高速就回公路局了,这样好了,拉我到住宅区去练倒桩。那就走吧。经常在市里躲警察,还真不怕。我心想,得给他再打一针,然后我说,一会经过市里,如果人多或者车多,我要保持车距,不能开太快,四十OK吗?他说,那肯定了,市里更要小心,四十OK,有些地方你可能要开到二十到三十。这下我心里有底了。果然被老巴说中了,一定带我过那个多车道大环岛,还好,平时从家门口一出就就得上去,这个难不倒我,一进环岛,看路牌,在岛内换好道,到了指定出口,看右后侧,再打灯出,一切都跟平常一样完美。只是速度慢了,怕他老人家受不了。出来后,我看他满意的拿起单子,勾了下。

在生活区里,老头指我进一个停车场,我说,咋整?他说,你倒车停进去任意一部车旁边。随你整,整好了通知我。骄傲情绪又在漫延,我特意选了一个两部车中间的空位,很自信的打了一把,一脚油就进去了。然后我再一看,窘死了,左边轮都压线了。但老巴说,压线可以,不要出线就行。然后老头推门一看,好像对此表现有点失望,我说,可以吗?他说,问你啊,你说行我就整成绩。我得瑟一下,商量的口气说,要不咱再整一遍?他说,我都行,你随意。我又小心挪出来,再挪了一把,这下全在线内了。我说,可以了。把手刹一拉,车一熄火,先聊会再说。这老头得意了,说,你娃真傻,这里这么多位你不停,偏要挤进来。我说这不就近原则嘛。又扯点别的,然后,他说,走吧,路还长着呢。我极不情愿的打火再上路,这回他说,去医院。我想想也明白了,医院就在警察局旁,回家收工喽。

一路经过市里,过三十valla区,在一个占巴士道右转时,一大早修路工人就拉着一个小车在我同侧朝我走来,也不在人行道上,这时我犹豫了一下,觉得怎么都是死,停,阻碍交通,不停,有行人,但他不在人行道上啊。想想,还是停吧,万一挂了,还能争,说有人。结果我停在右拐的路口上。等那人拉着车经过我了,我再往前开。这时老头立马拿起单子,快速勾了一下,我的心都跳出来了。还好,只是勾了一下,我只能估算是生活区过了。然后就是减速过铺高的人行道,让车少颠簸。这样,老头也舒服。

在主道上,转左进公路局,我方一个直行绿灯,单独的一个左轮绿灯,两个灯组合,我当时估算,对面来车也是绿灯,所以,我转到路口,就停住等对面的车。这下老头大动作了,猛摇头,一个劲的nej,nej,nej.我心想,这下完了。我就解释了一把,我说对面来车也是绿灯,所以我让行啊。他说不是的,如果只是一盏直行绿灯,你就要让,现在是两盏,你左转是绿,所以,你先行,他是红灯或是黄。你这样停下来,后面的车会生气的。除非你看到对面的车不停,你才停。我心想,要是对面的车不停,我停慢了,两车相撞,你这个位置最惨。但是,事已至此,以为就最后一步滑铁卢了。也就无心争了。慢慢的把车开到指定位置,在小路上, 有一辆车要出来,我要进去,他已经在那里等候,但是我想起了右手规则,我还是停下来了,让他出,不得不佩服自已的专业精神,一般人受这样打击,怕是魂都没了,哪还记得让人。老头说,你打个右灯,你不打灯,谁知道你让他。我就照办,这一指导,那小车出来了,我再进去。然后开到公路局门口停住了。关火,老头拿出一张白纸,就画了刚才的十字路口,还有交通灯位置。我一想,这下有得争了,先不浪费口舌,以结果为导向,就果断的问了一句,did i passed?他说,sure, definitely.这一下就如坠春风,温暖满怀。于是,笑逐颜开,一副不耻下问的样子,小弟不才,不懂不懂,原闻先生赐教。他又给我解释了几分钟,最后说,开得很好,提了几个小问题,里面就有单手开车的问题。建议我平时放松点。 成绩单撕给我一份,说正式驾照会在十四天内寄给我,这张成绩单和ID就可以开车了。然后祝我好运。我也挥手告别他,一看表,他只有五分钟上厕所了,觉得自已太自私了,占用别人太多时间。因为我看他日程表写着十点又考谁谁谁。

感觉这个考官太好人了。而且自已也没有什么大毛病,安全意识到位,谨慎开车,很符合教科书的做法。所以,考官应该是很喜欢的。总结了下,有几点很重要:

1。有效的沟通。

2。表达自已的想法,让考官接受。

3。适当的打预防针。

4。熟悉路线和有计划的开车。

5。谦虚加不耻下问。

6。骑自行车去考试。

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瑞典考驾照全攻略

— 转自 Kina

  1. 去驾校拿驾驶许可申请表。
  2. 眼镜店测视力。100kr
  3. 寄表到 County Administrative Board。
  4. 网上给学习许可付费,220kr。 http://www.lst.se/lst/sv/amnen/Korkort/stockholm/inbetalning_av_korkortstillstand
  5. 电话催 County Administrative Board。
  6. 收到许可后,网上订理论考试,滑道培训,订驾校。https://secure1.ore.vv.se/bokaprov/
  7. 理论考试当天 拍照,签名。
  8. 驾校学习

要考瑞典的驾照,首先要申请驾驶学习许可(Körkortstillstånd),有了这个许可,才能真正开始考照生涯。去附近的的驾校领一套申请表,按要求填。申请表中会有一部分是检查视力的。拿着去附近的眼镜店,做视力检查后,眼镜店的人会帮你把表填好,并盖章。查视力一般100kr左右,根据人品好坏,和相貌的关系,有些人可能会收95kr,有的人100kr,有的甚至还不收钱。不知道是我的人品问题还是相貌关系,收了我100。嗨。。。。。。失败!填好表后,把表格寄到 County Administrative Board。驾校领表的时候同时会得到。表格寄出去之后,理论上就可以给学习许可付费了。http://www.lst.se/lst/sv/amnen/Korkort/stockholm/inbetalning_av_korkortstillstand 在这里,输入人口号,网页会自动生成OCR number。象平时交账单一样就好。220kr,由于是全电脑操作,因此价格不会受人品,或者相貌影响。我当时寄出去后,以为会收到个账单,然后再付费。左等又等不见来。等了一个多月,还好一个朋友告诉我的自己去网上交,不然谁知道学习许可要到啥时候才能下来呢。交过钱之后,隔上个两天就可以打电话骚扰County Administrative Board,催促他们快点下许可。打完电话,一周之内基本上就能收到学习许可了。

收到学习许可的同时,还有一张纸,上面是一个密码,用这个密码可以在网上订理论或者驾驶考试。网址在https://secure1.ore.vv.se/bokaprov/

截至到现在,恭喜你,你可以合法开始你得考照生涯了。瑞典考驾照分三步走:理论,滑道(冰上驾驶)培训和路考。收到学习许可之后,你可以同时进行理论学习和滑道培训,因为它们俩的优先级是一样的,但必须在路考之前完成。我一收到许可,就订了10天后的理论考试,开始抓紧时间学习脚规。复习理论,我推荐去STR买题库,250kr,20套题。做完这20套题,理论应该没啥问题。然后用刚提到的密码去网上订考试时间地点。考一次的费用是220kr。网上订过考试后,公路局会给你寄来账单和确认信。而且也是全电脑操作交账单,不会因为人品或者相貌而价格不同。这点比较人性,不用傻等。然后就是好好复习,到了订的时间,记得去考试就行了。理论考试当天是要现场拍照和签名。这个照片和签名会最终出现在你的驾照上。所以,考试前一天记得洗澡刮胡子,练字。我就是因为不知道,懒了一下没刮胡子,衣服也是乱穿,所以照相照扯了,象个杀人犯。而且还好长时间没写字,签名签的象陀屎。切记切忌,考试前一天一定要把自己收拾妥当。

接下来就是滑道培训,我去的是Bromma Halkbana, http://www.brommahalkbana.se。滑道培训不存在过和不过,旨在体验车在冰上,或者很滑的路面上驾驶有多危险。按照老师的要求做,车会在路上打滑转圈,漂移。就是玩玩。Stockholm的价格是1400kr,别的城市可能会便宜点。我订的是理论考试的前一天,比较运气,不浪费时间。

理论和滑道都过了就可以准备驾驶考试了。这里,因人而异。上驾校,找私人教练。。。。。。反正就是把自己的驾驶水平提升到通过考试就行。年轻的时候,在家里老爷子的严格要求下,把基础打的比较扎实,并且当年把深圳电信的那个新面包糟蹋了一年多,所以没上驾校和找私教。在这个环节就省了一大笔银子。

我在考完理论当天,在公路局的前台那订了最快的一个路考空位。7天后,在Jakobsberg。考试费700kr,如果要用公路局的车,还得400kr的租车费。账单会在2-3个工作日寄到。交账单也还是用电脑,人品和相貌都不管用。时间紧迫啊!记得上次开车好像是几个月之前了,考前一定的摸摸车。于是周四考试,周日下午借了老姑的大宇,无照,无私教,无Overingskor标志去啊普锁拉溜了一圈。感觉还行。考试问题应该不大。然后就干等周四快点来了。

周四,请了半天假,向公路局挺进。

到了公路局,和考官见面,确认身份,签字,然后一边寒暄一边向车走去。考官问我开过SAAB没有,虽然以前开过,但我还是回答没有。为什么呢?因为如果回答说没有,碰到一些小的问题就有合理的解释:以前没开过这个牌子的车,所以不熟悉。。。。。。这就要看你能不能喷到点子上,把所有错误都归结为这个牌子的车上。

到了车跟前,考官让我做个车灯检查。我就装模作样的把转向灯搬了搬,看了看亮不亮,看看车头灯亮不亮。。。。。。由于在太阳地低下,为了表现我检查的仔细,我明知灯亮着,还故意夸张的用手把阳光遮一下,确认灯泡是亮的。据说考官就喜欢这样夸张的表现。切记切记。

然后上车,坐上去之后,发现座位的前后距离太小,调动开关怎么弄都不动。于是低调的报告考官:“这个牌子的车和我以前开的不太一样,座位我调不了。。。”。于是她过来摆弄了两下,发现确实是坏了,准备换车。出师不利啊!考官上楼找他老板要了另一辆SAAB,回来半严肃的告诉我,这辆是最后一辆,让我小心开。接过钥匙,开门上车。调好座椅,和反光镜,发动车子。摸索半天,找不到倒档。晕!这个时候,我的没开过SAAB的借口再一次用上了。考官无奈的告诉我,要把档位提一下。小小机关,害的我把车挪不出来。失败。。。

出了公路局的院子,我们驶在大路上,意气风发斗志昂扬。按照考官的路线,看着路牌一路前行。上路了,该让的时候让,该变道的时候提早做准备。碰到限速的标识,严格按照规定的速度来。我都是控制在比限制的速度低个5km。特别要注意的是左右拐弯的时候转头看盲点时一定要转的幅度大点。考官就喜欢这样。没有红绿灯的交叉路口注意右手规则。碰见斑马线边站人的话一定要提前做准备。用眼神,眼神交流。刚出公路局的院子的时候,我为了表现我的幅度大,向左转头的时候,没估计出车仓大小,脑袋狠狠的撞到了左边玻璃上。咚一声,顿时感觉有小星星在头上飞,晕。。。。。。不知道考官听到了没有。会不会让我赔车呀。控制情绪,继续。左拐,右拐,过转盘,过工业区,住宅区,高速公路,闹市区。。。。。。感觉所有路况都让我开了个遍。最后还让我把车开进另一个小区,路很窄,先平行停在一辆车旁边,然后倒车入车位。中途考官变了好几次目的地。本来在Jakobsberg区考试,最后考官竟然让我开到了Solluntuna的别墅区里兜圈子,太狠了。交一地区考试的钱,去两个区考试,赚翻了。折腾了一大圈,我都不知道从哪条路开回的公路局。只是感觉一转弯,眼前豁然开朗,又回到出发的路上。终于活着回来了。哈哈哈

一路上我用余光不时扫考官的单子,这老太太还算仁义,没在我的单子上涂写乱画,貌似没犯啥错误。哈哈哈。把车停到了公路局的指定车位,老太太跟我谈了谈,说我开的不错,别的都没啥,就是需要注意停车在让行线的时候把车停正,停直。晕,不明白怎么个正,直法。意见提出来了,虚心接受,并表达谢意。然后我问她我过了没有,她坚定的说“Yes, you pass it”。随后她在我的考试单子上签字,并告诉我在我收到真正驾照之前,这个单子和ID一起在瑞典等同于驾照。哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈。终于通过了,我的考照生涯终于圆满了。下了车一看表,足足考了一个多小时。别人都考40分钟,我考一个多小时,这考官不知道想啥呢。难道垂涎我的美色?又或者是想挑毛病?不管了,反正我过了。

回顾一下在瑞典考驾照,还是挺复杂的,也比国内上驾校贵。小规则太多,需要特别注意。在国内开车养成的习惯需要特别克制一下。比如说转弯看两个反光镜和转头,右手规则,过盘道要让盘道里面的车先走。。。。。。

以下是我的考照的全部费用,仅供参考

100
视力检查

250
题库

220
学习许可

220
理论考试

1400
滑道培训

1100
路考

3290
总计

Posted in Life in Sweden | Leave a comment

希腊字母怎么念?

大写 小写 英文注音 国际音标注音 中文注音
Α α alpha alfa 阿耳法
Β β beta beta 贝塔
Γ γ gamma gamma 伽马
Δ δ deta delta 德耳塔
Ε ε epsilon epsilon 艾普西隆
Ζ ζ zeta zeta 截塔
Η η eta eta 艾塔
Θ θ theta θita 西塔
Ι ι iota iota 约塔
Κ κ kappa kappa 卡帕
∧ λ lambda lambda 兰姆达
Μ μ mu miu 缪
Ν ν nu niu 纽
Ξ ξ xi ksi 可塞
Ο ο omicron omikron 奥密可戎
∏ π pi pai 派
Ρ ρ rho rou 柔
∑ σ sigma sigma 西格马
Τ τ tau tau 套
Υ υ upsilon jupsilon 衣普西隆
Φ φ phi fai 斐
Χ χ chi khai 喜
Ψ ψ psi psai 普西
Ω ω omega omiga 欧米伽

Posted in KnowHow from internet | Leave a comment

Swedish Course 2011-01-27

1. Som (Who/that/which)

Jag har en kusin som boren i Paris.

Han har en bil som är grön.

Hon har två böcker som är mycket bra.

Jag känner en man som har två born.

Engelska är ett språk som är bra att kunna. / man använder / jag kan tala.

Paris är en stad som ät jätte vacker. / som större än Göteborg.

Henning Mankell är en författare som jag inte känner till. / som mest känd.

2. n. –> adverb.

hem, hemma:

Jag går hem, han är inte hemma.

hit, här:

Jag kommer hit kl. kvart i nio varje dag. Han är inte här just nu.

dit, där:

Jag kommer dit halv nio varje dag, han är där till kl. 17:00.

bort, borta

Jag ska bort i kväll. Jag är borta i en timme.

in, inne

Kom in! Du fär inte röka här inne.

ut, ute

Jag går ut och röker. Man får bara röka ute.

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Yrken: Vad göd de?

En Lärare: Lärare undervisar i en skola.

En brevbärare: Brevbärare delar ut post.

En dansare: Dansare är med i en dansensemble.

En frisör: Frisör klipper hår.

En barnmorska: Barnmorska hjälper kvinnor föda barn.

En snickare: Snickare gör möbler eller bygger hus.

En kassörska: Kassörska sitter i kassan i en affär.

En läkare: Läkare arbetar tillsammans med läkare.

En servitör: Servitör serverar mat.

En fotograf: Fotograf tar bilder.

En musiker: Musiker spelar i ett band.

En tidningsbud: Tidningsbud delar ut tidningen på morgonen.

En ingenjör: Ingenjör utvecklar teknik och produkter.

En taxichaufför: Taxichaufför kör personer i sin bil.

En konstnär: konstnär målar tavlor.

En kock: Kock lagar mat.

En sjuksköterska: Sjuksköterska undersöker patienter.

En murare: Murare bygger murar och hus.

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President’s State of the Union Address Barack Obama U.S. Capitol January 27, 2010 (巴拉克·奥巴马总统国情咨文 美国国会 2010年1月27日)

这那是什么国情咨文,这是战争檄文!

演讲中多次提到中国的发展,那不是表扬,那是战斗宣言!其潜台词是:几十年前我们战胜了苏联,现在我们依然可以战胜中国!

只是我们实在应该好好想想,凭什么他们这么有底气? 而我们该做什么?

*****************************************************************************************

—- 转自 沪江英语

Madam Speaker, Vice President Biden, members of Congress, distinguished guests, and fellow Americans:

众议院议长女士、副总统拜登、诸位国会议员、贵宾们、同胞们:

Our Constitution declares that from time to time, the President shall give toCongress information about the state of our union. For 220 years, our leaders have fulfilled this duty. They’ve done so during periods of prosperity and tranquility. And they’ve done so in the midst of war and depression; at moments of great strife and great struggle.

我们的宪法规定,美国总统必须定期向国会报告国家情况。在过去220年的时间里,无论是繁荣和平,还是战争危机,即使存在激烈的冲突和战斗,历届美国总统也都能完成这一使命。

It’s tempting to look back on these moments and assume that our progresswas inevitable -– that America was always destined to succeed. But when the Union was turned back at Bull Run, and the Allies first landed at Omaha Beach, victory was very much in doubt. When the market crashed on Black Tuesday, and civil rights marchers were beaten on Bloody Sunday, the future was anything but certain. These were the times that tested the courage of our convictions, and the strength of our union. And despite all our divisions and disagreements, our hesitations and our fears, America prevailed because we chose to move forward as one nation, as one people.

回顾历史上的这些时刻,并相信我们的进步是不可阻挡的——美国永远注定会取得成功,这些固然让人感到自豪。然而,当美国股市持续了10年的牛市崩溃、盟军于奥马哈海滩登陆时,我们长久以来的胜利曾遭受强烈的质疑。当市场在“黑色星期二”崩盘,游行民众在那个流血星期日被镇压的时候,美国的未来曾充满了不确定性。这些时刻都曾考验我们的信念和我们国家的力量。纵使我们拥有种种分歧,犹豫和恐惧也时刻伴随,美国最终取得了胜利,因为我们选择团结在一起,作为一个国家、一个民族向前进。

Again, we are tested. And again, we must answer history’s call.

今天,我们再一次面临着考验,也再一次必须回应历史的召唤。

One year ago, I took office amid two wars, an economy rocked by a severe recession, a financial system on the verge of collapse, and a government deeply in debt. Experts from across the political spectrum warned that if we did not act, we might face a second depression. So we acted -– immediately and aggressively. And one year later, the worst of the storm has passed.

一年前,美国正处于两场战争之中,经济遭遇大萧条,金融体系处在崩溃的边缘,政府深陷债务之中,在这样的一个时刻,我当选了美国总统。不同政治派别的专家对我们提出警告,如果我们不采取行动,我们可能会面临第二次经济大萧条。所以我们果断而迅速地采取了行动,一年后的今天,最糟糕的暴风雨时期已经过去了。

But the devastation remains. One in 10 Americans still cannot find work. Manybusinesses have shuttered. Home values have declined. Small towns and rural communities have been hit especially hard. And for those who’d already known poverty, life has become that much harder.

然而,灾难性的效应依旧存在。现在仍然有十分之一的美国人找不到工作。许多企业歇业,房屋价格下跌,小城镇和乡村受到的冲击尤其严重。对那些本已很贫穷的人来说,生活变得更加艰难。

This recession has also compounded the burdens that America’s families have been dealing with for decades –- the burden of working harder and longer for less; of being unable to save enough to retire or help kids with college.

这次经济大萧条使美国家庭几十年来承载的重压进一步加剧。这种压力就是:即使他们工作更努力、时间更长,也得不到更多的收入,无法存够钱退休或者帮孩子读完大学。

So I know the anxieties that are out there right now. They’re not new. These struggles are the reason I ran for President. These struggles are what I’ve witnessed for years in places like Elkhart, Indiana; Galesburg, Illinois. I hear about them in the letters that I read each night. The toughest to read are those written by children -– asking why they have to move from their home, asking when their mom or dad will be able to go back to work.

我能够理解人们现在的焦虑,这些问题并不是新的,而我就是为了解决这些问题才竞选美国总统。这几年,我在印第安纳州的埃尔克哈特和伊利诺伊州的盖尔斯堡亲眼目睹了人们的困境,也从每晚阅读他们的信件中了解情况。最让人难过的是阅读那些孩子的来信,他们在信中问,为什么他们不得不从家里搬出来,或者他们的爸爸妈妈什么时候才能重新找到工作。

For these Americans and so many others, change has not come fast enough. Some are frustrated; some are angry. They don’t understand why it seems like bad behavior on Wall Street is rewarded, but hard work on Main Street isn’t; or why Washington has been unable or unwilling to solve any of our problems. They’re tired of the partisanship and the shouting and the pettiness. They know we can’t afford it.  Not now.

对这些美国公民以及其它像他们一样的人来说,变革的速度似乎还不够快。对此,有些人感到灰心,还有人感到愤怒。他们不能理解,为什么华尔街那些不好的行为好像能受到嘉奖,而普通民众的努力工作却得不到回报;为什么政府似乎不能够或不愿意解决人们的问题;他们已经厌烦了党派分歧、叫喊和卑劣的争斗。他们认为我们解决不了这些问题,至少现在还不能。

So we face big and difficult challenges. And what the American people hope -– what they deserve -– is for all of us, Democrats and Republicans, to work through our differences; to overcome the numbing weight of our politics. For while the people who sent us here have different backgrounds, different stories, different beliefs, the anxieties they face are the same. The aspirations they hold are shared: a job that pays the bills; a chance to get ahead; most of all, the ability to give their children a better life.

因为这样,我们面前的挑战巨大而又艰难。美国人希望看到的、也是他们应该看到的,是我们所有人,无论民主党还是共和党,能够解决我们之间的分歧,克服我们两党之间已近乎麻木的偏袒,那些为我们投票人拥有不同的背景和信仰,但他们所担忧的和我们一样。他们都拥有共同的愿望,就是获得一份工作,能够来付账;一个能够在生活中不断进步的机会,最重要的是,能够有能力为他们的孩子提供更好的生活。

You know what else they share? They share a stubborn resilience in the face of adversity. After one of the most difficult years in our history, they remain busy building cars and teaching kids, starting businesses and going back to school. They’re coaching Little League and helping their neighbors. One woman wrote to me and said, “We are strained but hopeful, struggling but encouraged.”

知道他们还共同拥有什么吗?那就是面对逆境的顽强韧性。在经历了美国历史上最困难的时期后,他们仍然忙于建造汽车、教育孩子、经营生意以及回到学校读书,他们为小社团提供辅导并帮助邻居,正如一位女士给我的信中写道:“我们感觉担忧但同时也充满希望,我们正在努力奋斗但充满干劲。”
It’s because of this spirit -– this great decency and great strength -– that I have never been more hopeful about America’s future than I am tonight. (Applause.) Despite our hardships, our union is strong. We do not give up. We do not quit. We do not allow fear or division to break our spirit. In this new decade, it’s time the American people get a government that matches their decency; that embodies their strength. (Applause.)  

正是由于这种精神,这种伟大的尊严和力量,使我从来没有像今晚这样对美国的未来充满希望。尽管我们目前处境艰难,但我们的国家十分强大。我们永远不会放弃,不会停止努力,不会允许恐惧或者分歧破坏我们这种宝贵的精神。在这个全新的10年里,美国人将拥有与他们的尊严相称、能够代表他们力量的政府。

And tonight, tonight I’d like to talk about how together we can deliver on that promise.

今晚,我们将讨论如何共同履行这一承诺。

It begins with our economy.

首先,从我们的经济开始。

Our most urgent task upon taking office was to shore up the same banks that helped cause this crisis. It was not easy to do. And if there’s one thing that has unified Democrats and Republicans, and everybody in between, it’s that we all hated the bank bailout. I hated it — (applause.) I hated it. You hated it. It was about as popular as a root canal. (Laughter.)

我上任的当务之急就是援助那些引起危机的银行。这并不是一项容易的任务。如果说民主党和共和党曾就某件事达成共识的话,那就是我们都不愿对银行实施救助。

But when I ran for President, I promised I wouldn’t just do what was popular -– I would do what was necessary. And if we had allowed the meltdown of the financial system, unemployment might be double what it is today. More businesses would certainly have closed. More homes would have surely been lost.

但是,当我竞选总统时,我承诺不会按照惯常的做法,而是需要什么做什么。如果我们任由金融体系坍塌,失业率将可能达到今天的一倍。更多的企业会停业,更多的人会流离失所。

So I supported the last administration’s efforts to create the financial rescue program. And when we took that program over, we made it more transparent and more accountable. And as a result, the markets are now stabilized, and we’ve recovered most of the money we spent on the banks. (Applause.) Most but not all.

因此,我支持上届政府在金融救助项目上的努力。在我们实施这一项目时,会保证其透明度和可操作性。现在,市场已经稳定,向银行业发放的大部分救助资金也已经收回。

To recover the rest, I’ve proposed a fee on the biggest banks. (Applause.) Now, I know Wall Street isn’t keen on this idea. But if these firms can afford to hand out big bonuses again, they can afford a modest fee to pay back the taxpayers who rescued them in their time of need. (Applause.)

为了实现其它领域的复苏,我已经提议向大型银行征税。我知道这一想法一定不会受到华尔街的欢迎,但是如果这些企业能够重新发放高额,他们也一定能够承担相应的费用,回报在其需要救助时向他们伸出援手的纳税人。

Now, as we stabilized the financial system, we also took steps to get our economy growing again, save as many jobs as possible, and help Americans who had become unemployed.

随着金融体系的稳定,我们也逐渐重新恢复了经济增长,同时尽可能地保留住了更多的工作岗位,并帮助了那些失去工作的美国民众。

That’s why we extended or increased unemployment benefits for more than 18 million Americans; made health insurance 65 percent cheaper for families who get their coverage through COBRA; and passed 25 different tax cuts.

这也是为什么我们能够为1800多万美国失业人员延长或增加了失业津贴,使得统一综合预算汇编法案(COBRA)覆盖的美国家庭医疗保险费用下降65%,并通过了25项不同的税收减免政策。

Now, let me repeat: We cut taxes. We cut taxes for 95 percent of working families. (Applause.) We cut taxes for small businesses. We cut taxes for first-time homebuyers. We cut taxes for parents trying to care for their children. We cut taxes for 8 million Americans paying for college. (Applause.)

让我重申,我们在减税,我们为工薪阶层家庭削减了95%的税,我们为小企业减税,为首套房购房者减税,为抚养孩子的父母减税,为800万付费上大学的美国人减税。

I thought I’d get some applause on that one. (Laughter and applause.)

我觉得我应该为此获得掌声。

As a result, millions of Americans had more to spend on gas and food and other necessities, all of which helped businesses keep more workers. And we haven’t raised income taxes by a single dime on a single person. Not a single dime. (Applause.)

这样做的结果,就是数百万美国人在汽油、食品等生活必需品多支出,这样才能让企业留住更多的工人。对于每一个个人,我们没有提高一分一厘的税收。一分一厘也没有。

Because of the steps we took, there are about two million Americans working right now who would otherwise be unemployed. (Applause.) Two hundred thousand work in construction and clean energy; 300,000 are teachers and other education workers. Tens of thousands are cops, firefighters, correctional officers, first responders. (Applause.) And we’re on track to add another one and a half million jobs to this total by the end of the year.

正是由于我们采取的一系列举措,使得约200万本可能失业的企业员工现在仍能继续工作。其中包括20万建筑业和清洁能源领域从业2人员,30万教师及其它教育行业工作人员,数万名的警察、消防队员和惩教人员等。并且现在,我们正在逐步努力在今年年底前继续增加150万个工作岗位。

The plan that has made all of this possible, from the tax cuts to the jobs, is the Recovery Act. (Applause.) That’s right -– the Recovery Act, also known as the stimulus bill. (Applause.) Economists on the left and the right say this bill has helped save jobs and avert disaster. But you don’t have to take their word for it. Talk to the small business in Phoenix that will triple its workforce because of the Recovery Act. Talk to the window manufacturer in Philadelphia who said he used to be skeptical about the Recovery Act, until he had to add two more work shifts just because of the business it created. Talk to the single teacher raising two kids who was told by her principal in the last week of school that because of the Recovery Act, she wouldn’t be laid off after all.

是《复兴法案》(Recovery Act)使得所有这一切,从消减税收到创造就业的实现成为可能,没错,正是《复兴法案》,也就是人们通常所称的《刺激法案》帮助避免了更大灾难的到来。凤凰城的那些小型企业,因为《复兴法案》而增加了两倍的劳动力;费城的橱窗制造商表示他曾对这一法案持怀疑态度,但当他由于业务的增加不得不增加两组工人倒班工作时,他改变了最初的看法;还有那些需要抚养孩子的教师,当他们被校长告知由于《复兴法案》而无需被解雇时,他们是多么地高兴。

There are stories like this all across America. And after two years of recession, the economy is growing again. Retirement funds have started to gain back some of their value. Businesses are beginning to invest again, and slowly some are starting to hire again.

美国各地充满了诸如此类的事例。危机爆发两年后,美国经济重新恢复了增长,投资活动也再次开始活跃起来,尽管步伐缓慢,但一些劳动力也开始恢复工作。

But I realize that for every success story, there are other stories, of men andwomen who wake up with the anguish of not knowing where their next paycheck will come from; who send out resumes week after week and hear nothing in response. That is why jobs must be our number-one focus in 2010, and that’s why I’m calling for a new jobs bill tonight. (Applause.)

当然,我已意识到伴随成功故事总会出现其它一些事例。一些承担了深度痛苦的人、那些不断投递出简历却日复一日始终没有回应的人们不知道他们的未来在哪里。这就是为什么创造就业将是我们2010年的首要任务,也是我今晚为什么要提议一份新的就业议案的原因所在。

Now, the true engine of job creation in this country will always be America’s businesses. (Applause.) But government can create the conditions necessary for businesses to expand and hire more workers.

美国创造就业的实际动力始终源于企业,但是政府可以为企业扩大雇员规模创造必要的条件。

We should start where most new jobs do –- in small businesses, companies that begin when — (applause) — companies that begin when an entrepreneur — when an entrepreneur takes a chance on a dream, or a worker decides it’s time she became her own boss. Through sheer grit and determination, these companies have weathered the recession and they’re ready to grow. But when you talk to small businessowners in places like Allentown, Pennsylvania, or Elyria, Ohio, you find out that even though banks on Wall Street are lending again, they’re mostly lending to bigger companies. Financing remains difficult for small businessowners across the country, even those that are making a profit.

首先,我们应该开始于主要创建新就业岗位的小型企业领域。小型企业依靠其毅力和决心,度过了经济危机的难关,正准备进入成长阶段。然而,当你与宾夕法尼亚州、伊利里亚州或者俄亥俄州的小型企业主交谈时,你会发现即使华尔街的各家银行已经恢复信贷,但大部分资金都流向了大型企业,资金筹集仍然是全国小型企业共同面临的困难。

So tonight, I’m proposing that we take $30 billion of the money Wall Street banks have repaid and use it to help community banks give small businesses the credit they need to stay afloat. (Applause.) I’m also proposing a new small business tax credit — one that will go to over one million small businesses who hire new workers or raise wages. (Applause.) While we’re at it, let’s alsoeliminate all capital gains taxes on small business investment, and provide a tax incentive for all large businesses and all small businesses to invest in new plants and equipment. (Applause.)

所以今晚,我提议将华尔街银行归还的300亿美元救助资金用来帮助社区银行为小型企业提供发展所需的信贷。此外,我还将提议一项面向增加新雇员或上调职员工资的小型企业的税收抵免政策。当政策得以实施时,让我们也一并取消向小型企业进行投资所需缴纳的资本利得税,并面向所有投资建立新工厂和设备的企业、不论大小均实施税收激励政策。

Next, we can put Americans to work today building the infrastructure of tomorrow. (Applause.) From the first railroads to the Interstate Highway System, our nation has always been built to compete. There’s no reason Europe or China should have the fastest trains, or the new factories that manufacture clean energy products.

另外,我们将要通过为当前美国人创造就业机会,同时为美国未来的基础设施建设贡献力量。从第一条铁路建成到州际公路系统,我们的国家一直在建设之中。没有理由只有欧洲或中国拥有最快的火车以及那些生产洁净能源产品的工厂。

Tomorrow, I’ll visit Tampa, Florida, where workers will soon break ground on a new high-speed railroad funded by the Recovery Act. (Applause.) There are projects like that all across this country that will create jobs and help move our nation’s goods, services, and information. (Applause.)

明天,我将前往佛罗里达州坦帕市,依靠《复兴法案》的专项资金,工人们很快将在那里动工修建一条新的高速铁路。接下来美国各地都将有相似的项目陆续展开,这将帮助我们创造更多的就业岗位,并帮助美国朝着更好、更信息化、更具服务性的方向发展。

We should put more Americans to work building clean energy facilities — (applause) — and give rebates to Americans who make their homes more energy-efficient, which supports clean energy jobs. (Applause.) And to encourage these and other businesses to stay within our borders, it is time to finally slash the tax breaks for companies that ship our jobs overseas, and give those tax breaks to companies that create jobs right here in the United States of America. (Applause.)

我们将使更多的美国人参与到建立洁净能源设施的工作中来,并使那些提高能源效率、支持洁净能源建设的家庭享受更优惠的税收政策。此外,现在也是那些为美国而非海外国家劳动力就业贡献力量的企业享受税收优惠的时候了。

Now, the House has passed a jobs bill that includes some of these steps. (Applause.) As the first order of business this year, I urge the Senate to do the same, and I know they will. (Applause.) They will. (Applause.) People are out of work. They’re hurting. They need our help. And I want a jobs bill on my desk without delay. (Applause.)

众议院已经通过了一项包含上述部分内容的创造就业提案。作为今年工作的第一项职责,我将敦促参议院同样完成这项任务。人们处在失业之中,他们的生活深受影响,他们需要我们的帮助,我希望能尽快看到一份呈交给我的创造就业提案。

But the truth is, these steps won’t make up for the seven million jobs that we’ve lost over the last two years. The only way to move to full employment is to lay a new foundation for long-term economic growth, and finally address the problems that America’s families have confronted for years.

然而,我们不得不面对的事实是,即使采取这一系列措施,我们仍然无法完全弥补在过去两年中损失的700万个工作岗位。全面彻底解决就业困境唯一的途径就是为长期经济增长建立基础,并最终解决美国家庭多年来面临的问题。

We can’t afford another so-called economic “expansion” like the one from the last decade –- what some call the “lost decade” -– where jobs grew more slowly than during any prior expansion; where the income of the average American household declined while the cost of health care and tuition reached record highs; where prosperity was built on a housing bubble and financial speculation.

我们已无法再一次担负所谓的经济膨胀。过去的这个10年,就业增长速度比以往任何一次经济膨胀时期都要慢得多,美国年庭的平均收入大幅下降而医疗保健费用和学费却创下了历史新高,所谓的繁荣不过是建立在房地产泡沫和金融领域的投机行为之上。

From the day I took office, I’ve been told that addressing our larger challenges is too ambitious; such an effort would be too contentious. I’ve been told that our political system is too gridlocked, and that we should just put things on hold for a while.

从我上任的那天起,就一直被告知,想彻底解决美国社会问题只是一种充满野心的构想,这种努力将会引起巨大争议,我们的政治体系已陷入僵局,所以我们需要做的只是暂缓困境,将一些极具挑战性的工作搁置起来。

For those who make these claims, I have one simple question: How long should we wait? How long should America put its future on hold? (Applause.)

对于那些持这种想法的人,我只想提出一个简单的问题:我们要等多久呢?美国的未来要被搁置多久呢?

You see, Washington has been telling us to wait for decades, even as the problems have grown worse. Meanwhile, China is not waiting to revamp its economy. Germany is not waiting. India is not waiting. These nations — they’re not standing still. These nations aren’t playing for second place. They’re putting more emphasis on math and science. They’re rebuilding their infrastructure. They’re making serious investments in clean energy because they want those jobs. Well, I do not accept second place for the United States of America. (Applause.)

可见,华盛顿要让我们再等几十年,即使情况已经变得越来越糟。中国选择经济改革而没有等待,德国没有等待,印度没有等待,这些国家都没有坐以待毙,他们重视数学和科学发展,重建国家基础设施,大举投资洁净能源建设,因为他们需要这些带来的工作岗位。我不接受美国坐在世界第二的位置上。

As hard as it may be, as uncomfortable and contentious as the debates may become, it’s time to get serious about fixing the problems that are hampering our growth.

或许道路会很艰难,或许需要面对各种争议,但美国真的到了认真解决束缚我们发展的那些问题的时候了。

Now, one place to start is serious financial reform. Look, I am not interested in punishing banks. I’m interested in protecting our economy. A strong, healthy financial market makes it possible for businesses to access credit and create new jobs. It channels the savings of families into investments that raise incomes. But that can only happen if we guard against the same recklessness that nearly brought down our entire economy.

最先开始的一步将是金融体系改革。我并非存有私心希望惩罚银行业,我只是希望保护美国的经济。一个强劲的、健康的金融市场才能使企业合理获得信贷并实现就业创造,它将能引导家庭储蓄转变成增加收入的投资,但是,这一切只有在我们成功避免重复几乎致使整个经济体系崩溃的鲁莽行为前提下才会发生。

We need to make sure consumers and middle-class families have the information they need to make financial decisions. (Applause.) We can’t allow financial institutions, including those that take your deposits, to take risks thatthreaten the whole economy.

我们需要确保消费者和中产阶级家庭能够掌握做出理财决定所需的基本信息,我们不能允许金融机构再次冒险对整个经济体系造成威胁。

Now, the House has already passed financial reform with many of these changes. (Applause.) And the lobbyists are trying to kill it. But we cannot let them win this fight. (Applause.) And if the bill that ends up on my desk does not meet the test of real reform, I will send it back until we get it right. We’ve got to get it right. (Applause.)

众议院已经通过了一份包含许多调整内容的金融体系改革提案,并且,游说人员也正在试图扼杀它。当然,我们不会让他们在这场斗争中获胜。如果最终提交给我的提案无法满足真正的改革需要,我将会将其退回。

Next, we need to encourage American innovation. Last year, we made the largest investment in basic research funding in history -– (applause) — an investment that could lead to the world’s cheapest solar cells or treatment that kills cancer cells but leaves healthy ones untouched. And no area is more ripe for such innovation than energy. You can see the results of last year’s investments in clean energy -– in the North Carolina company that will create 1,200 jobs nationwide helping to make advanced batteries; or in the California business that will put a thousand people to work making solar panels.

其次,我们需要鼓励美国人创新。去年,我们支出了历史上最多的一笔基础研究经费,用以投资研发世界上最便宜的太阳能电池以及能够杀死癌变细胞但同时不伤害健康细胞的医学治疗方法。能源领域比其他任何领域都更富于创新。北卡罗莱纳州的一家公司在全国范围内增加了1200个就业岗位生产高级电池,加利福尼亚州的企业也将增加1000名员工从事太阳能电池板的生产工作。

But to create more of these clean energy jobs, we need more production, more efficiency, more incentives. And that means building a new generation of safe, clean nuclear power plants in this country. (Applause.) It means making tough decisions about opening new offshore areas for oil and gas development. (Applause.) It means continued investment in advanced biofuels and clean coal technologies. (Applause.) And, yes, it means passing a comprehensive energy and climate bill with incentives that will finally make clean energy the profitable kind of energy in America. (Applause.)

然而,为了创造更多的清洁能源领域的工作机会,我们需要扩大生产、提高效率并增加鼓励措施。这意味着在这个国家建设新一代安全、清洁的核能发电厂。这意味着作出艰难决策,新辟近海地区进行石油和天然气的开发。这意味着继续投资于先进的生物燃料和清洁煤炭技术。不错,这还意味着通过一项采取鼓励措施的综合性能源和气候法案,最终使清洁能源在美国成为可盈利能源。

I am grateful to the House for passing such a bill last year. (Applause.) And this year I’m eager to help advance the bipartisan effort in the Senate. (Applause.)

我感谢众议院去年通过了这样一项法案。今年,我也热切希望参议院两党共同努力推动这项工作的进行。

I know there have been questions about whether we can afford such changes in a tough economy. I know that there are those who disagree with the overwhelming scientific evidence on climate change. But here’s the thing — even if you doubt the evidence, providing incentives for energy-efficiency and clean energy are the right thing to do for our future -– because the nation that leads the clean energy economy will be the nation that leads the global economy. And America must be that nation. (Applause.)

我知道对于我们在困难的经济条件下是否有财力进行这些改革尚有疑问;我也知道有些人不认同有关气候变化的有力的科学依据。但即使对有关依据存在疑问,采取鼓励措施促进能源效率和清洁能源也是着眼于我们的未来而应当做的——因为引领清洁能源经济的国家将是引领世界经济的国家。这个国家必将是美国。

Third, we need to export more of our goods. (Applause.) Because the more products we make and sell to other countries, the more jobs we support right here in America. (Applause.) So tonight, we set a new goal: We will double our exports over the next five years, an increase that will support two million jobs in America. (Applause.) To help meet this goal, we’re launching a National Export Initiative that will help farmers and small businesses increase their exports, and reform export controls consistent with national security. (Applause.)

第三,我们需要更多地出口我们的产品。因为我们制造并出口到其他国家的产品越多,能够在美国创造的就业机会就越多。所以今晚,我们要制定一个新目标:我们要在今后五年内将出口增加一倍,这个增幅将在美国创造200万个工作机会。为推动实现这个目标,我们要发起一项国家出口计划(National Export Initiative)。这项计划将帮助农民和小企业增加出口,并以有利于国家安全的方式改革出口管制。

We have to seek new markets aggressively, just as our competitors are. If America sits on the sidelines while other nations sign trade deals, we will lose the chance to create jobs on our shores. (Applause.) But realizing those benefits also means enforcing those agreements so our trading partners play by the rules. (Applause.) And that’s why we’ll continue to shape a Doha trade agreement that opens global markets, and why we will strengthen our trade relations in Asia and with key partners like South Korea and Panama and Colombia. (Applause.)

我们必须与我们的竞争对手一样,大力开辟新市场。如果其他国家签署贸易协议而美国却坐视观望,我们就会失去在我国国内创造就业机会的时机。但要获取这些惠益也意味着要强制执行那些协议,促使我们的贸易伙伴照章办事。这就是我们之所以要继续努力制定旨在开放全球市场的多哈贸易协议,之所以要加强在亚洲的贸易关系,并加强同韩国、巴拿马和哥伦比亚这样的重要伙伴的贸易关系。

Fourth, we need to invest in the skills and education of our people. (Applause.)

第四,我们需要为美国民众的教育和技能学习进行投资。

Now, this year, we’ve broken through the stalemate between left and right by launching a national competition to improve our schools. And the idea here is simple: Instead of rewarding failure, we only reward success. Instead of funding the status quo, we only invest in reform — reform that raises student achievement; inspires students to excel in math and science; and turns around failing schools that steal the future of too many young Americans, from rural communities to the inner city. In the 21st century, the best anti-poverty program around is a world-class education. (Applause.) And in this country, the success of our children cannot depend more on where they live than on their potential.

今年,我们已经打破了左翼和右翼之间的僵局共同通过了一项改善全国学校系统的计划。原因很简单,我们只奖赏成功者不奖赏失败者,我们愿意为改革投资而不会资助其维持现状。我们要从乡村社区到城市中心,激发学生在数学和科学方面的才华,改变那些毁掉许多美国年轻人未来的学校。21世经扶贫项目之一就是建设世界一流的教育。在美国,孩子能否成功不应取决于他们住在哪里。

When we renew the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, we will work with Congress to expand these reforms to all 50 states. Still, in this economy, a high school diploma no longer guarantees a good job. That’s why I urge the Senate to follow the House and pass a bill that will revitalize our community colleges, which are a career pathway to the children of so many working families. (Applause.)

更新初等和中等教育法案,我们将与国会合作,将改革方案扩大到全部五十个州。在如今的经济形势下,高中学历将无法获得好的工作。我提请参议院考虑众议院的意见,重振社区大学,这将有利于工薪家庭子女的教育。

To make college more affordable, this bill will finally end the unwarranted taxpayer subsidies that go to banks for student loans. (Applause.) Instead, let’s take that money and give families a $10,000 tax credit for four years of college and increase Pell Grants. (Applause.) And let’s tell another one million students that when they graduate, they will be required to pay only 10 percent of their income on student loans, and all of their debt will be forgiven after 20 years –- and forgiven after 10 years if they choose a career in public service, because in the United States of America, no one should go broke because they chose to go to college. (Applause.)

这项法令将减轻大学教育的家庭负担,最终结束毫无保证的银行贷款投资。现在,让我们把这笔钱用于为承担大学费用的家庭提供一万美元的税收优惠。同时,目前就读的一百万学生毕业的时候,将只需要支付收入的十分之一来偿还学生贷款。二十年之后他们的负债将全部减免——如果在公共服务领域工作的话仅需十年。在美国,没有人应该为就读大学而破产。

And by the way, it’s time for colleges and universities to get serious about cutting their own costs -– (applause) — because they, too, have a responsibility to help solve this problem.

所有大学都有帮助解决这个问题的义务,他们必须认真考虑降低学费。

Now, the price of college tuition is just one of the burdens facing the middle class. That’s why last year I asked Vice President Biden to chair a task force on middle-class families. That’s why we’re nearly doubling the child care tax credit, and making it easier to save for retirement by giving access to every worker a retirement account and expanding the tax credit for those who start a nest egg. That’s why we’re working to lift the value of a family’s single largest investment –- their home. The steps we took last year to shore up the housing market have allowed millions of Americans to take out new loans and save an average of $1,500 on mortgage payments.

现在,大学学费只是中产阶级沉重负担的一个方面。这就是为什么去年我认命副总统。这就是为什么我们几乎将儿童医疗税收优惠提高了一倍。这就使为什么给每一个工人提供退休帐户来让他们更方便地为退休储蓄。这就是为什么我们为那些为养老而担忧的人扩大税收优惠。这就是为什么我们竭力提高家庭最大投资——其住房的价值。我们去年采取的措施有力支撑了房屋市场,使数以百万计的美国人获得新的贷款,平均贷款支付减少了1500美元。

This year, we will step up refinancing so that homeowners can move into more affordable mortgages. (Applause.) And it is precisely to relieve the burden on middle-class families that we still need health insurance reform. (Applause.) Yes, we do. (Applause.)

今年我们将再次筹措资金为房屋所有者带来更便宜的贷款。同时,为了减轻中产家庭的负担,我们还必须进行医疗保险改革。

Now, let’s clear a few things up. (Laughter.) I didn’t choose to tackle this issue to get some legislative victory under my belt. And by now it should be fairly obvious that I didn’t take on health care because it was good politics. (Laughter.) I took on health care because of the stories I’ve heard from Americans with preexisting conditions whose lives depend on getting coverage; patients who’ve been denied coverage; families –- even those with insurance -– who are just one illness away from financial ruin.

我选择这个问题并不是为了取得立法胜利,这一点必须清楚。同时需要厘清的是我这么做也不是为了政治因素。一直以来,太多美国人都依赖保险才能活下去,因此,我要着手解决医疗保险的问题。有的病人没有医保,有的家庭即使有医保,一场疾病也能让全家破产。

After nearly a century of trying — Democratic administrations, Republican administrations — we are closer than ever to bringing more security to the lives of so many Americans. The approach we’ve taken would protect every American from the worst practices of the insurance industry. It would give small businesses and uninsured Americans a chance to choose an affordable health care plan in a competitive market. It would require every insurance plan to cover preventive care.

经过近一个世纪的努力,美国人民现在比以往任何时候都更有保障。我们采取的措施将保护每一名美国人,不让其受到保险业不良经营的危害。市场竞争将使小型公司和未投保的美国人有机会选择能力范围内的医疗计划。每一个保险计划都必须涵盖预防性医疗。

And by the way, I want to acknowledge our First Lady, Michelle Obama, who this year is creating a national movement to tackle the epidemic of childhood obesity and make kids healthier. (Applause.) Thank you. She gets embarrassed. (Laughter.)

在此,我必须感谢第一夫人米歇尔-奥巴马。她今年发起了一项针对日益严重的儿童肥胖问题的全国性运动。谢谢你。她有些不好意思了。

Our approach would preserve the right of Americans who have insurance to keep their doctor and their plan. It would reduce costs and premiums for millions of families and businesses. And according to the Congressional Budget Office -– the independent organization that both parties have cited as the official scorekeeper for Congress –- our approach would bring down the deficit by as much as $1 trillion over the next two decades. (Applause.)

同时,这些措施也能够保护已投保者的利益,让他们能继续保持他们的医疗计划和就诊医生。数以百万的家庭和公司的医疗成本和保险费将下降。根据国会预算办公室,这是一个独立组织,各党都把它作为国会工作成效的统计员,这些举措将在接下来的二十年中,将预算赤字减少1万亿美元。

Still, this is a complex issue, and the longer it was debated, the more skeptical people became. I take my share of the blame for not explaining it more clearly to the American people. And I know that with all the lobbying and horse-trading, the process left most Americans wondering, “What’s in it for me?”

尽管如此,这仍然是一个复杂的问题。讨论越多,人民的怀疑就越多。我本应更多地向民众解释地更清楚,因为民众担心在所有的游说和妥协后,这些措施最后到底还能为美国人带来什么。

But I also know this problem is not going away. By the time I’m finished speaking tonight, more Americans will have lost their health insurance. Millions will lose it this year. Our deficit will grow. Premiums will go up. Patients will be denied the care they need. Small business owners will continue to drop coverage altogether. I will not walk away from these Americans, and neither should the people in this chamber. (Applause.)

但我也知道这个问题还没有彻底解决。仍然会有人失去他们的保险,赤字增加,保险费提高,病人无法得到治疗,小型企业不投保,我与在座各位将与这些美国人站在一起。

So, as temperatures cool, I want everyone to take another look at the plan we’ve proposed. There’s a reason why many doctors, nurses, and health care experts who know our system best consider this approach a vast improvement over the status quo. But if anyone from either party has a better approach that will bring down premiums, bring down the deficit, cover the uninsured, strengthen Medicare for seniors, and stop insurance company abuses, let me know. (Applause.) Let me know. Let me know. (Applause.) I’m eager to see it.

我希望各位重新考虑我们的提议。许多医生、护士和医疗专家认为这些措施将极大改善现状,但是如果两党能提出更好的方案来降低保险费,减少赤字,覆盖未投保者和老年人保险,改善保险公司陋习,我也非常欢迎。

Here’s what I ask Congress, though: Don’t walk away from reform. Not now. Not when we are so close. Let us find a way to come together and finish the job for the American people. (Applause.) Let’s get it done. Let’s get it done. (Applause.)

我对国会的要求是:不要停止改革,我们的工作已接近完成,让我们尽力做到最后。

Now, even as health care reform would reduce our deficit, it’s not enough to dig us out of a massive fiscal hole in which we find ourselves. It’s a challenge that makes all others that much harder to solve, and one that’s been subject to a lot of political posturing. So let me start the discussion of government spending by setting the record straight.

尽管医疗改革减少了赤字,仍不足以弥补金融问题带来的损失。这个问题给治理其他方面带来了困难,同时存在很多政治因素的考虑。现在让我们来讨论一下政府开支。

At the beginning of the last decade, the year 2000, America had a budget surplus of over $200 billion. (Applause.) By the time I took office, we had a one-year deficit of over $1 trillion and projected deficits of $8 trillion over the next decade. Most of this was the result of not paying for two wars, two tax cuts, and an expensive prescription drug program. On top of that, the effects of the recession put a $3 trillion hole in our budget. All this was before I walked in the door. (Laughter and applause.)

在上个十年初始,也就是2000年的时候,美国预算盈余超过2千亿美元。而在我就职之时,年预算赤字超过了1万亿美元,预计下个十年的预算赤字超过8万亿美元。绝大部分原因是没有两次战争、两次税收减免、以及昂贵的处方药体系。除此之外,这次经济衰退给我们带来了3万亿美元的预算漏洞。这就是我来之前的情况。

Now — just stating the facts. Now, if we had taken office in ordinary times, I would have liked nothing more than to start bringing down the deficit. But we took office amid a crisis. And our efforts to prevent a second depression have added another $1 trillion to our national debt. That, too, is a fact.

如果在平常时期就职,我将立即开始削减赤字。但处于金融危机之中,防止第二次萧条的措施增加了1万亿美元债务。

I’m absolutely convinced that was the right thing to do. But families across the country are tightening their belts and making tough decisions. The federal government should do the same. (Applause.) So tonight, I’m proposing specific steps to pay for the trillion dollars that it took to rescue the economy last year.

我认为这是必需的。全国人民不得不勒紧裤腰带。联邦政府也同样。所以现在,我将提议一系列举措来弥补这1万亿美元。

Starting in 2011, we are prepared to freeze government spending for three years. (Applause.) Spending related to our national security, Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security will not be affected. But all other discretionary government programs will. Like any cash-strapped family, we will work within a budget to invest in what we need and sacrifice what we don’t. And if I have to enforce this discipline by veto, I will. (Applause.)

从2011年开始,我们准备连续3年冻结政府开支。涉及我国安全、联邦医疗保险、医疗补助计划以及社会安全福利的开支不会受到影响。然而,政府所有其他可自由处置的项目将受到影响……如果我必须通过否决的方式才能执行这项纪律,我将义不容辞。

We will continue to go through the budget, line by line, page by page, to eliminate programs that we can’t afford and don’t work. We’ve already identified $20 billion in savings for next year. To help working families, we’ll extend our middle-class tax cuts. But at a time of record deficits, we will not continue tax cuts for oil companies, for investment fund managers, and for those making over $250,000 a year. We just can’t afford it. (Applause.)

我们将继续逐行逐页地审理预算条目,取消那些我们无力支付的没有实效的项目。我们已确定明年可节省200亿美元。中产家庭的税收优惠将扩大到工薪家庭。但石油公司、投资基金经理以及年收入超过25万美元的人将不再有税收优惠。这是我们所负担不起的。

Now, even after paying for what we spent on my watch, we’ll still face the massive deficit we had when I took office. More importantly, the cost of Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security will continue to skyrocket. That’s why I’ve called for a bipartisan fiscal commission, modeled on a proposal by Republican Judd Gregg and Democrat Kent Conrad. (Applause.) This can’t be one of those Washington gimmicks that lets us pretend we solved a problem. The commission will have to provide a specific set of solutions by a certain deadline.

然而,医疗保险、医疗补助以及社会保险的开支仍会大幅提高。我已经发起两党共同成立财政委员会,这是共和党贾德-格雷格和民主党肯特-康拉德的一项提议。这个委员会将在规定时间内提出一系列切实可行的具体措施。

Now, yesterday, the Senate blocked a bill that would have created this commission. So I’ll issue an executive order that will allow us to go forward, because I refuse to pass this problem on to another generation of Americans. (Applause.) And when the vote comes tomorrow, the Senate should restore the pay-as-you-go law that was a big reason for why we had record surpluses in the 1990s. (Applause.)

昨天,上院否决了此提议。因此我将签发行政令让其通过,否则我们将不得不把问题留给下一代。

Now, I know that some in my own party will argue that we can’t address the deficit or freeze government spending when so many are still hurting. And I agree — which is why this freeze won’t take effect until next year — (laughter) — when the economy is stronger. That’s how budgeting works. (Laughter and applause.) But understand –- understand if we don’t take meaningful steps to rein in our debt, it could damage our markets, increase the cost of borrowing, and jeopardize our recovery -– all of which would have an even worse effect on our job growth and family incomes.

我知道我自己的党内有些人会说,当这么多人仍然处于困境时,我们无法削减赤字或冻结政府开支。我同意,这就是为什么这次冻结要等到明年,经济好转时才生效。制定预算的道理就在这里。但应该明白,如果我们不采取有效的步骤,严格控制我们的债务,就会破坏市场,增加借贷成本,进而危及我们的复苏。这一切对我们就业机会的增长和家庭收入会有更恶劣的影响。

From some on the right, I expect we’ll hear a different argument -– that if we just make fewer investments in our people, extend tax cuts including those for the wealthier Americans, eliminate more regulations, maintain the status quo on health care, our deficits will go away. The problem is that’s what we did for eight years. (Applause.) That’s what helped us into this crisis. It’s what helped lead to these deficits. We can’t do it again.

也有人提出,如果我们减少对百姓的投入、将税收优惠扩大到更富裕的美国人、取消行政限制、保持医疗现状,赤字就会消失。可问题是,我们八年来一直是这么做的,却被带进了金融危机和巨大的赤字。现在我们不能再这么做了。

Rather than fight the same tired battles that have dominated Washington for decades, it’s time to try something new. Let’s invest in our people without leaving them a mountain of debt. Let’s meet our responsibility to the citizens who sent us here. Let’s try common sense. (Laughter.) A novel concept.

我们必须停止争论、开始改革。

To do that, we have to recognize that we face more than a deficit of dollars right now. We face a deficit of trust -– deep and corrosive doubts about how Washington works that have been growing for years. To close that credibility gap we have to take action on both ends of Pennsylvania Avenue — to end the outsized influence of lobbyists; to do our work openly; to give our people the government they deserve. (Applause.)

为此我们必须到我们面临的不光是赤字问题。我们还面临着对政府信心不足的问题。为了重树信心,我们必须对说客说不,必须公开政务。

That’s what I came to Washington to do. That’s why -– for the first time in history –- my administration posts on our White House visitors online. That’s why we’ve excluded lobbyists from policymaking jobs, or seats on federal boards and commissions.

这就是我就职以来所做的。这就是为什么历史上首次进行了网上参观白宫,为什么我们拒绝让说客担任政府职务。

But we can’t stop there. It’s time to require lobbyists to disclose each contact they make on behalf of a client with my administration or with Congress. It’s time to put strict limits on the contributions that lobbyists give to candidates for federal office.

但是这些还不够。必须要求说客公开他们与国会或行政部门的联系,必须严格限制他们对联邦办公室候选人竞选的参与。

With all due deference to separation of powers, last week the Supreme Court reversed a century of law that I believe will open the floodgates for special interests –- including foreign corporations –- to spend without limit in our elections. (Applause.) I don’t think American elections should be bankrolled by America’s most powerful interests, or worse, by foreign entities. (Applause.) They should be decided by the American people. And I’d urge Democrats and Republicans to pass a bill that helps to correct some of these problems.

I’m also calling on Congress to continue down the path of earmark reform. Applause.) Democrats and Republicans. (Applause.) Democrats and Republicans. You’ve trimmed some of this spending, you’ve embraced some meaningful change. But restoring the public trust demands more. For example, some members of Congress post some earmark requests online. (Applause.) Tonight, I’m calling on Congress to publish all earmark requests on a single Web site before there’s a vote, so that the American people can see how their money is being spent. (Applause.)

我也要求国会继续特别款项改革,我们已经削减了部分开支,但为了重新赢得民众信任,我们必须做的更多。

Of course, none of these reforms will even happen if we don’t also reform how we work with one another. Now, I’m not naïve. I never thought that the mere fact of my election would usher in peace and harmony — (laughter) — and some post-partisan era. I knew that both parties have fed divisions that are deeply entrenched. And on some issues, there are simply philosophical differences that will always cause us to part ways. These disagreements, about the role of government in our lives, about our national priorities and our national security, they’ve been taking place for over 200 years. They’re the very essence of our democracy.

当然,如果我们不改善两党关系,这些改革都无法实现。我对两党的分歧状况早有准备。其中一些分歧是由政治理念造成的,已经存在了二百余年,这正代表了我们的民主精神。

But what frustrates the American people is a Washington where every day is Election Day. We can’t wage a perpetual campaign where the only goal is to see who can get the most embarrassing headlines about the other side -– a belief that if you lose, I win. Neither party should delay or obstruct every single bill just because they can. The confirmation of — (applause) — I’m speaking to both parties now. The confirmation of well-qualified public servants shouldn’t be held hostage to the pet projects or grudges of a few individual senators. (Applause.)

但是争论不休只能让人民失望。我们的目的不是为了让对手失败。我们绝不应滥用手中的权力。我们要做的是服务人民,否则只能导致民众对政府失去信心。

Washington may think that saying anything about the other side, no matter how false, no matter how malicious, is just part of the game. But it’s precisely such politics that has stopped either party from helping the American people. Worse yet, it’s sowing further division among our citizens, further distrust in our government.

So, no, I will not give up on trying to change the tone of our politics. I know it’s an election year. And after last week, it’s clear that campaign fever has come even earlier than usual. But we still need to govern.

我们的当务之急是治理国家,而不是竞选活动。

To Democrats, I would remind you that we still have the largest majority in decades, and the people expect us to solve problems, not run for the hills. (Applause.) And if the Republican leadership is going to insist that 60 votes in the Senate are required to do any business at all in this town — a supermajority — then the responsibility to govern is now yours as well. (Applause.) Just saying no to everything may be good short-term politics, but it’s not leadership. We were sent here to serve our citizens, not our ambitions. (Applause.) So let’s show the American people that we can do it together. (Applause.)

我要提醒民主党人,我们在数十年内仍将占大多数,如果民主党领导人坚持上院60票才能通过任何法令,那么治理国家的任务你们也有份。否决一切法令也许在短期内从政治角度看来可以,但是我们来这里是为了服务人民,而不是为了满足我们的政治雄心。

This week, I’ll be addressing a meeting of the House Republicans. I’d like to begin monthly meetings with both Democratic and Republican leadership. I know you can’t wait. (Laughter.)

Throughout our history, no issue has united this country more than our security. Sadly, some of the unity we felt after 9/11 has dissipated. We can argue all we want about who’s to blame for this, but I’m not interested in re-litigating the past. I know that all of us love this country. All of us are committed to its defense. So let’s put aside the schoolyard taunts about who’s tough. Let’s reject the false choice between protecting our people and upholding our values. Let’s leave behind the fear and division, and do what it takes to defend our nation and forge a more hopeful future — for America and for the world. (Applause.)

纵观我国历史,没有任何问题如同安全问题一样更有助于我国的团结。遗憾的是,我们在9/11事件以后感受到的团结精神已经涣散。我们可以根据我们的愿望争论谁是谁非,但是我对重提以往的争论不感兴趣。我知道我们大家都热爱这个国家。我们大家都决心保卫国家。让我门抛弃冷嘲热讽,不再象孩子那样争论谁更厉害。让我们拒绝接受虚幻的假设,保护我国人民和坚持我国价值观并非必须两者择一。让我们摒弃恐惧和分裂,尽一切力量保卫我们的国家,缔造更有希望的未来,为了美国,为了全世界。

That’s the work we began last year. Since the day I took office, we’ve renewedour focus on the terrorists who threaten our nation. We’ve made substantial investments in our homeland security and disrupted plots that threatened to take American lives. We are filling unacceptable gaps revealed by the failed Christmas attack, with better airline security and swifter action on our intelligence. We’ve prohibited torture and strengthened partnerships from the Pacific to South Asia to the Arabian Peninsula. And in the last year, hundreds of al Qaeda’s fighters and affiliates, including many senior leaders, have been captured or killed — far more than in 2008.

这是我们去年开始从事的工作。自我上任第一天开始,我们再接再厉,集中力量抗击威胁我国的恐怖主义分子。我们为国土安全投下了巨大的资源。我们制止了威胁美国人生命的阴谋。我们正在弥补圣诞节攻击事件暴露的不可接受的疏漏,增强了航空安全,为改善我国的情报工作更迅速地采取行动。我们禁止酷刑,加强了从太平洋到南亚和阿拉伯半岛的伙伴关系。去年,数百名基地组织(Al Qaeda)团伙及其附庸,包括很多高级头目不是被捕获,就是被击毙,人数远远高于2008年。 

And in Afghanistan, we’re increasing our troops and training Afghan security forces so they can begin to take the lead in July of 2011, and our troops can begin to come home. (Applause.) We will reward good governance, work to reduce corruption, and support the rights of all Afghans — men and women alike. (Applause.) We’re joined by allies and partners who have increased their own commitments, and who will come together tomorrow in London to reaffirm our common purpose. There will be difficult days ahead. But I am absolutely confident we will succeed.

在阿富汗,我们正在增加兵力,并训练阿富汗的安全部队(Afghan Security Forces),使他们可以在2011年7月开始承担主要责任,从而我国军人可以开始返回家园。我们将奖励良好治理,减少腐败,支持全体阿富汗人-男子和妇女-的权利。我们得到盟国的参与,各盟国加强了各自的承诺,将出席明天在伦敦举行的会议,重申我们的共同目标。今后的日子会遇到艰险,但是我绝对相信我们将获得成功。

As we take the fight to al Qaeda, we are responsibly leaving Iraq to its people. As a candidate, I promised that I would end this war, and that is what I am doing as President. We will have all of our combat troops out of Iraq by the end of this August. (Applause.) We will support the Iraqi government — we will support the Iraqi government as they hold elections, and we will continue to partner with the Iraqi people to promote regional peace and prosperity. But make no mistake: This war is ending, and all of our troops are coming home. (Applause.)  

我们在向基地组织发起进攻之际,我们也在负责任地将伊拉克交还给伊拉克人民。作为总统竞选的候选人,我曾经保证将结束这场战争。这也正是我作为总统正在做的工作。我们将在今年8月底前从伊拉克撤出所有的作战部队。我们将支持伊拉克政府举行的各项选举,与伊拉克人民合作保障地区和平与繁荣。但是毫无疑问,这场战争即将结束,我国所有的部队都将回国。

Tonight, all of our men and women in uniform — in Iraq, in Afghanistan, and around the world –- they have to know that we — that they have our respect, our gratitude, our full support. And just as they must have the resources they need in war, we all have a responsibility to support them when they come home. (Applause.) That’s why we made the largest increase in investments for veterans in decades — last year. (Applause.)   That’s why we’re building a 21st century VA. And that’s why Michelle has joined with Jill Biden to forge a national commitment to support military families. (Applause.)

今晚,我们向所有军人——不管在伊拉克、阿富汗还是全世界任何地方传达我们的敬意、感激和支持。在他们回国之后我们将全力照顾他们。我们已经提高了退伍军人的费用,这是数十年来最大的一次。米歇尔也与吉尔·拜登一起发起了一个全国组织来扶助军属。

Now, even as we prosecute two wars, we’re also confronting perhaps the greatest danger to the American people -– the threat of nuclear weapons. I’ve embraced the vision of John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan through a strategythat reverses the spread of these weapons and seeks a world without them. To reduce our stockpiles and launchers, while ensuring our deterrent, the United States and Russia are completing negotiations on the farthest-reaching arms control treaty in nearly two decades. (Applause.) And at April’s Nuclear Security Summit, we will bring 44 nations together here in Washington, D.C. behind a clear goal: securing all vulnerable nuclear materials around the world in four years, so that they never fall into the hands of terrorists. (Applause.)

尽管我们在进行两场战争,我们还在抗击美国人民面临的最大的危险,即核武器构成的威胁。我赞同约翰·肯尼迪和罗纳德·里根的远见,要求采取遏制这类武器扩散的战略,寻求没有核武器的世界。为了在确保我们的威慑力的同时减少我们的武器库存和发射器,美国与俄罗斯正在完成近20年对射程最远的武器进行控制的条约谈判。今年4月预定在华盛顿举行核安全峰会,我们邀请44个国家出席会议,为了实现一个明确的目标:在4年内保障全世界所有危险核材料的安全,保证这些核材料永远不落入恐怖主义分子之手。

Now, these diplomatic efforts have also strengthened our hand in dealing with those nations that insist on violating international agreements in pursuit of nuclear weapons. That’s why North Korea now faces increased isolation, and stronger sanctions –- sanctions that are being vigorously enforced. That’s why the international community is more united, and the Islamic Republic of Iran is more isolated. And as Iran’s leaders continue to ignore their obligations, there should be no doubt: They, too, will face growing consequences. That is a promise. (Applause.)

这些外交行动也有助于我们对付那些为寻求核武器一再违抗国际协议的国家。正是因为如此,如今北韩处于更孤立的处境,面临着更严厉的制裁,这些制裁正得到有力的实施。正是因为如此,国际社会更为团结,而伊朗伊斯兰共和国更受到孤立。由于伊朗领导人继续无视其本身的义务,毫无疑问他们也将面临日益严厉的制裁。这已经确定无疑。

That’s the leadership that we are providing –- engagement that advances the common security and prosperity of all people. We’re working through the G20 to sustain a lasting global recovery. We’re working with Muslim communities around the world to promote science and education and innovation. We have gone from a bystander to a leader in the fight against climate change. We’re helping developing countries to feed themselves, and continuing the fight against HIV/AIDS. And we are launching a new initiative that will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease -– a plan that will counter threats at home and strengthen public health abroad.

这就是我们正在发挥的领导作用 — 为促进所有人民共同安全与繁荣而进行的接触。我们正在通过20国集团(G-20)维持永久性全球复苏。我们为了促进科学、教育和创新,正与全世界各地的穆斯林合作。我们在与气候变化作斗争的过程中从旁观者转变为主导者。我们正在帮助发展中国家解决温饱问题,并继续抗击艾滋病病毒/艾滋病。我们正在开展一项新的计划 — 一项抗击国内受到的威胁和加强国外公共卫生的计划,这项计划将使我们有能力对生物恐怖主义或传染病作出更快和更有效的反应。

As we have for over 60 years, America takes these actions because our destiny is connected to those beyond our shores. But we also do it because it is right. That’s why, as we meet here tonight, over 10,000 Americans are working with many nations to help the people of Haiti recover and rebuild. (Applause.) That’s why we stand with the girl who yearns to go to school in Afghanistan; why we support the human rights of the women marching through the streets of Iran; why we advocate for the young man denied a job by corruption in Guinea. For America must always stand on the side of freedom and human dignity. (Applause.) Always. (Applause.)

60多年来,美国历来采取这些行动,是因为我们的命运与海外人们的命运联系在一起。我们这样做,也是因为这是正确的事。这就是为什么当我们今天在这里开会时,有10,000多美国人正与许多国家共同帮助海地人民恢复与重建。这就是为什么我们支持阿富汗一位渴望上学的女孩;支持在伊朗街头游行的妇女维护人权;要求为因腐败而被剥夺就业机会的几内亚青年主持公道。因为美国必须一如既往站在自由和人类尊严的一边。必须一如既往。

Abroad, America’s greatest source of strength has always been our ideals. The same is true at home. We find unity in our incredible diversity, drawing on the promise enshrined in our Constitution: the notion that we’re all created equal; that no matter who you are or what you look like, if you abide by the law you should be protected by it; if you adhere to our common values you should be treated no different than anyone else.

在国外,我们的力量来自我们的理念。国内也同样。每个人生而平等。无论你是谁,是什么肤色,只要你遵守法律就应得到法律保护,只要你坚持我们的共同信念就应被平等对待。

We must continually renew this promise. My administration has a Civil Rights Division that is once again prosecuting civil rights violations and employment discrimination. (Applause.) We finally strengthened our laws to protect against crimes driven by hate. (Applause.) This year, I will work with Congress and our military to finally repeal the law that denies gay Americans the right to serve the country they love because of who they are. (Applause.) It’s the right thing to do. (Applause.)

我们必须不断确保这项承诺。我有一个人权部门处理反人权和雇佣歧视。我们后来针对仇恨引起的犯罪加强了法律。今年,我将与国会和军事机构一起探讨废除禁止同性恋入伍的法令。

We’re going to crack down on violations of equal pay laws -– so that women get equal pay for an equal day’s work. (Applause.) And we should continue the work of fixing our broken immigration system -– to secure our borders and enforce our laws, and ensure that everyone who plays by the rules can contribute to our economy and enrich our nation. (Applause.)

我们将支持同工同酬,妇女必须得到同样的待遇。我们必须继续改善漏洞百出的移民制度,以保护国界、加强法律,确保每个遵守法律的人都能为国家和经济发展做出贡献。

In the end, it’s our ideals, our values that built America — values that allowed us to forge a nation made up of immigrants from every corner of the globe; values that drive our citizens still. Every day, Americans meet their responsibilities to their families and their employers. Time and again, they lend a hand to their neighbors and give back to their country. They take pride in their labor, and are generous in spirit. These aren’t Republican values or Democratic values that they’re living by; business values or labor values. They’re American values.

是我们的信念铸造了美国,将各个民族团结在一起。他们富有责任、乐于帮助、热爱祖国。他们以自己的劳动而荣,他们慷慨大度。这不是共和党或民主党的信念,这不是商业或劳动信念。这是美国人的信念。

Unfortunately, too many of our citizens have lost faith that our biggest institutions -– our corporations, our media, and, yes, our government –- still reflect these same values. Each of these institutions are full of honorable men and women doing important work that helps our country prosper. But each time a CEO rewards himself for failure, or a banker puts the rest of us at risk for his own selfish gain, people’s doubts grow. Each time lobbyists game the system or politicians tear each other down instead of lifting this country up, we lose faith. The more that TV pundits reduce serious debates to silly arguments, big issues into sound bites, our citizens turn away.

遗憾的是,太多的美国人失去了对企业、对媒体、对政府的信念。这些组织都在从事着重要的工作来振兴国家。但是某些自私的CEO和银行家让民众开始怀疑。说客的干预和政党的争论不休让民众失去信心。

No wonder there’s so much cynicism out there. No wonder there’s so much disappointment.

这就是为什么现在有那么多的失望和冷嘲热讽。

I campaigned on the promise of change –- change we can believe in, the slogan went. And right now, I know there are many Americans who aren’t sure if they still believe we can change –- or that I can deliver it.

我的竞选承诺是改变。我知道现在有许多美国人怀疑我们是否能改变,或我是否能领导改变。

But remember this –- I never suggested that change would be easy, or that I could do it alone. Democracy in a nation of 300 million people can be noisy and messy and complicated. And when you try to do big things and make big changes, it stirs passions and controversy. That’s just how it is.

但是请记住,我从不认为改变是轻而易举的,或我一个人可以完成的。在一个有三亿人口的国家,民主可能意味着争论和复杂局面,大的改变必然引起大的争论,事情就是这样。

Those of us in public office can respond to this reality by playing it safe and avoid telling hard truths and pointing fingers. We can do what’s necessary to keep our poll numbers high, and get through the next election instead of doing what’s best for the next generation.

我们可以避免谈论残酷的事实,尽最大力量争取下届选票,将事情留给下一代去做。

But I also know this: If people had made that decision 50 years ago, or 100 years ago, or 200 years ago, we wouldn’t be here tonight. The only reason we are here is because generations of Americans were unafraid to do what was hard; to do what was needed even when success was uncertain; to do what it took to keep the dream of this nation alive for their children and their grandchildren.

但是我知道:如果人们在50年前、100年前或200年前决定这么做的话,就没有我们的今天。每一代美国人都责无旁贷的付出了艰苦的努力,才让他们后代的美国梦成为了现实。

Our administration has had some political setbacks this year, and some of them were deserved. But I wake up every day knowing that they are nothing compared to the setbacks that families all across this country have faced this year. And what keeps me going -– what keeps me fighting -– is that despite all these setbacks, that spirit of determination and optimism, that fundamentaldecency that has always been at the core of the American people, that lives on.

今年,我们这届政府遭受了一些政治挫折,有些挫折是理所应得的。我之所以能继续工作——我之所以能继续奋斗,是因为尽管遭受了这些挫折,那种坚定和乐观的精神——那种一直作为美国人民核心本质的根本正气——继续发扬光大。

It lives on in the struggling small business owner who wrote to me of his company, “None of us,” he said, “…are willing to consider, even slightly, that we might fail.”

It lives on in the woman who said that even though she and her neighbors have felt the pain of recession, “We are strong. We are resilient. We are American.”

It lives on in the 8-year-old boy in Louisiana, who just sent me his allowance and asked if I would give it to the people of Haiti.

这种精神体现在路易斯安那州一个8岁男孩的身上,他刚把他的零花钱寄给我,问我能否把这些钱转交给海地人民。

And it lives on in all the Americans who’ve dropped everything to go someplace they’ve never been and pull people they’ve never known from the rubble, prompting chants of “U.S.A.! U.S.A.! U.S.A!” when another life was saved.

这种精神体现在放下手中的一切赶往某个过去从未到过的地方,将素不相识的人从残垣瓦砾下抢救出来的所有其他美国人的身上;在每一个生命获救时,那些满怀感激之情的幸存者都会齐声呼喊“美国”、“美国”、“美国”。

The spirit that has sustained this nation for more than two centuries lives on in you, its people. We have finished a difficult year. We have come through a difficult decade. But a new year has come. A new decade stretches before us. We don’t quit. I don’t quit. (Applause.) Let’s seize this moment — to start anew, to carry the dream forward, and to strengthen our union once more. (Applause.)

这种精神200多年来一直给这个国家以力量,而今天继续在你们,今日美国人民身上发扬光大。我们走过了艰难的一年。我们经历了艰难的十年。新的一年已经到来。又一个十年在我们面前展开。让我们抓住这个时机,重整旗鼓,继续努力实现梦想,进一步巩固我们的国家。

Thank you. God bless you. And God bless the United States of America. (Applause.)

谢谢各位。愿上帝保佑诸位。愿上帝保佑美利坚合众国。

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